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Downtown Specific Plan, Volume 3 - Amended November 10, 2016TRUCKEE DOWNTOWN SPECIFIC PLAN VOLUME 3: HISTORIC DESIGN GUIDELINES TOWN OF TRUCKEE, CALIFORNIA AUGUST 4, 2003 (Amended November 10, 2016) Copyright © 2003 by Noré V. Winter Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Page ii Credits Town of Truckee Staff Tony Lashbrook, Director, Community Development Duane Hall, Town Planner Heidi Scoble, Associate Planner Historic Preservation Steering Committee Sharon Pace Arnold William LeDain Shelley McGinity Kris Norris Stefanie Olivieri Matt Rusanoff Carole Sesko Josh Susman Craig Threshie Dennis Zirbel Consultants Winter & Company 775 Poplar Avenue Boulder, CO 80304 (303) 440-8445 Noré V. Winter Julie Husband Brian W. Koenigberg, AICP Karen Good Betsy Shears RACESTUDIO 1128 The Alameda Berkeley, CA 94707 (510) 528-4316 Bruce Race, FAIA, AICP Kautz Environmental Consultants, Inc. 5200 Neil Road, Suite 200 Reno, NV 89502 (775) 829-4411 Bob Kautz Teri Christensen Susan Lindstrom, Archaeologist 14931 Denton Truckee, CA 96160 Susan Lindstrom Historic photographs are courtesy of Truckee Donner Historical Society, Tony Pace Private Photography Collection (courtesy of Sharon Pace Arnold) and Dana Scanlon Private Photo- graph Collection. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Page 3 Table of Contents SECTION I - BACKGROUND INFORMATION CHAPTER 1: THE DOWNTOWN DESIGN REVIEW SYSTEM 1 CHAPTER 2: HISTORIC OVERVIEW 11 CHAPTER 3: ARCHITECTURAL STYLES 17 SECTION II - TREATMENT OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES CHAPTER 4: PRESERVATION PRINCIPLES 29 CHAPTER 5: PRESERVATION OF ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES 33 CHAPTER 6: DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR HISTORIC BUILDING MATERIALS 37 CHAPTER 7: DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL BUILDING COMPONENTS 51 CHAPTER 8: DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR ADAPTIVE REUSE 61 CHAPTER 9: DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR ADDITIONS 63 SECTION III - SPECIAL GUIDELINES FOR ALL PROPERTIES CHAPTER 10: DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR SITE FEATURES 67 CHAPTER 11: DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR SIGNS 79 CHAPTER 12: DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS 85 Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Page 4 SECTION IV - NEW CONSTRUCTION & CHARACTER AREAS CHAPTER 13: GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION 91 CHAPTER 14: THE BRICKELLTOWN CHARACTER AREA 101 CHAPTER 15: THE COMMERCIAL DISTRICT CHARACTER AREA 107 CHAPTER 16: THE BURCKHAULTER CHARACTER AREA 117 CHAPTER 17: THE RIVER CHARACTER AREA 121 CHAPTER 18: THE CHURCH STREET CHARACTER AREA 129 CHAPTER 19: THE MCGLASHAN ADDITION CHARACTER AREA 137 CHAPTER 20: RAILROAD CHARACTER AREA 145 CHAPTER 21: SOUTH RIVER CHARACTER AREA 153 CHAPTER 22: HILLTOP CHARACTER AREA 159 The Downtown Design Review System Chapter 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 1 THE DOWNTOWN DESIGN REVIEW SYSTEM Introduction This book presents design review guidelines for the downtown historic overlay in Truckee. These guide- lines apply in addition to design standards and devel- opment regulations that are found in the Town’s De- velopment Code. Design Review Guidelines, administered by the Com- munity Development Director, are the primary regu- latory tool the Town has chosen to protect its histori- cal heritage and resources. This publication includes guidelines that will be used by the Town in determining the appropriateness of proposals for improvements that involve alterations to historic buildings as well as new construction. Site work and improvements to existing, non-historic struc- tures are also addressed. Design Guideline definition: “Several sections of the Development Code in various chapters are called ‘design guidelines.’ General design guidelines for multi-family and commercial uses appear in Article II, guidelines for landscaping, parking, and signs appear in Ar- ticle III, and guidelines for residential subdivi- sion design appear in Article V. Unlike zoning ‘standards,’ design ‘guidelines’ express Town pref- erences for development, but may be applied to projects with greater flexibility than other zon- ing standards. The design guidelines will be used during the land use/development permit review process as additional criteria for project review. Design guidelines may be applied to specific projects with flexibility, because not all design criteria may be workable or ap- propriate for each project. In some circumstances, a guideline may be relaxed in order to ac- complish another guideline that the project review body deter- mines is more important in the specific case. The overall objec- tive is to ensure that the intent and spirit of the design guidelines are followed, and to attain the best possible design within rea- son. “ from Truckee Develop- ment Code - User’s Guide, VII. Development Code Definitions The Downtown Design Review System Chapter 1 Page 2 Design Districts and Character Areas In addition to general guidelines for preservation and new development, special guidelines are included that relate to differing design contexts of individual neigh- borhoods. As a result, the historic area of Downtown Truckee is divided into nine geographic “Character Areas.” The boundaries of the Character Areas are shown on the following map. 3 5 6 2 7 Key 4 1 1 - Brickelltown 8 2 - Commercial District 3 - Bruckhaulter 4 - River 9 5 - Church Street 6 - Mc Glashan 7 - Railroad 8 - South River 9 - Hilltop See in the above map, the historic area of Downtown Truckee is divided into nine geographic “Character Areas.” Specific Design Guidelines for each character area are presented later in this document. The Downtown Design Review System Chapter 1 Page 3 Types of Projects Reviewed Public and private entities proposing to do work within the historic overlay are subject to design review. The following are among the types of work reviewed: • Alteration to the exterior of an existing structure • Repair of exterior features on an existing struc- ture • New construction • Addition to the exterior of an existing structure • Moving an existing structure • Demolition of an existing structure • Erection of a fence or wall in a commercial, manufacturing and public facility zone districts • Erection or alteration to an awning or canopy • Site work, including landscaping in commercial, manufacturing and public facility zone districts • Excavation and fill For materials found to be consistent with those in the adopted “Green Light” List, the following are exempt from Historic Design Review: • Fencing in residential zone districts • Seasonal outdoor dining, including the required ABC fencing • Roofing materials • Residential landscaping • Retaining walls less than 24” tall • Signs • Exterior light fixtures For materials found to be consistent with those included in the adopted “Yellow Light” list, staff will determine if they can be exempted from Historic Design Review on a case-by-case basis after further review of the Historic Design Guidelines. If the material is found to be consistent with the Historic Design Guidelines, the material shall be exempt from Historic Design Review. If the material is determined to be inconsistent with the Historic Design Guidelines, the project and/or material shall be subject to Historic Design Review. For any material found to be consistent with those included in the adopted “Red Light” list, that materials shall be subject to Historic Design Review. The design review process is “reactive,” in that it only applies to proposed actions initiated by the property owner. While it guides an approach to certain design problems by offering alternative solutions, it does not dictate a specific outcome and it does not require a property owner to instigate improvements that are not contemplated. For example, if an owner plans to re- pair a deteriorated porch, the guidelines indicate ap- propriate methods for such work. If porch repair is the only work proposed by the property owner, the process does not require that other building features that may be deteriorated, such as a roof that is in poor condition, be repaired. The Downtown Design Review System Chapter 1 Page 4 A Basic Approach Each project has unique attributes, which relate to the type of work involved, the use associated with it and its location within the district and the guidelines an- ticipate these variations in circumstances. I n all cases, however, the following basic principles apply: 1. Keep it Simple. The image of Downtown Truckee is that of a simpler time. Much of the built environment is composed of simple forms which reflect the climate, a “western” at- titude, and the town’s remoteness as well as the limi- tations of early transportation systems. 2. Keep It in Scale. Another aspect of Downtown Truckee is its sense of scale. Much of the old town is perceived from a vari- ety of viewpoints. This overall scale is reflected in the street layout and in the buildings which enhance a pedestrian environment. 3. Respect All Historic Resources. Truckee’s historic resources are very important. The sense of history is evident through the integrity of the town's many historic buildings. Typically, old build- ings should significantly outnumber new structures in an intact historic district. The sense of time and place on the street is also important. One should be able to perceive the character of the neighborhood as it was historically. 4. Make All New Design Compatible with its Existing Context. The town is not frozen in time. For this reason, new construction should draw upon the design elements of the historic buildings, while not directly imitating them. New interpretations of traditional building types in the Historic District are encouraged, such that they are seen as products of their own time yet compatible with the history. 5. Read All Applicable Design Guidelines. Applicants must demonstrate how their proposed project will comply with the design guidelines. The Downtown Design Review System Chapter 1 Page 5 The preservation of historic resources, and enhancement of the pedestrian-friendly environment in downtown are well-established policies. The Town of Truckee General Plan includes several references to historic preser- vation in the Downtown Study Area (DSA). Key policies are included on this page. DSA Policy 1: POLICIES Residential Area Policy 2: Preserve and enhance the historic mountain character of the Downtown Area. DSA Policy 7: Enhance the desirability of the downtown as a “destina- tion attraction.” Conservation and Open Space Goal 9: Protect cultural and historic resources and accommo- date public access as appropriate. Conservation and Open Space Policy 9.1: Require evaluation of impacts to cultural resources for projects which involve substantial site disturbance. Conservation and Open Space Policy 9.2: Encourage appropriate reuse of historic structures for housing, public recreation, and commercial uses with- out compromising their historic character. Land Use Guiding Policy 1: Encourage a mix of residential, office, and commercial uses to enhance the pedestrian orientation of downtown, reduce traffic, and provide an environment that fosters street level activity and social interaction. Land Use Guiding Policy 2: Enhance the desirability of downtown as a destination attraction for locals and tourists by creating a variety of reasons for people to come downtown. Downtown Commercial Core Policy 2: Emphasize the commercial core of downtown as a pe- destrian-oriented area. Downtown Commercial Core Policy 7: Protect the architectural character of existing historic buildings. Encourage renovations to upgrade the archi- tectural character of historic buildings ... to provide con- tinuity with Commercial Row. New residential development shall be designed at a scale and character which is consistent with existing maintained historical residential structures. Truckee River Corridor Policy 3: Link the Downtown Commercial Core and the river through a combination of mini-parks, pedestrian and bicycle bridges, access paths, and a public signage pro- gram. Truckee River Corridor Policy 9: New residential development adjacent t o the Truckee River corridor shall be clustered to protect sensitive riparian areas and scenic views to the river. Historic Resources Guiding Policy 1: Promote the preservation, rehabilitation and reno- vation of historic buildings. Historic Resources Guiding Policy 2: Discourage alterations to historic buildings which are not compatible with the building’s historic and ar- chitectural character. Historic Resources Guiding Policy 3: Safeguard historic buildings from unnecessary re- moval and demolition. Historic Resources Guiding Policy 4: Ensure new structures and development are congru- ous with their historic surroundings and do not de- tract from or harm, but complement the historic and architectural character of historic neighborhoods or surrounding historic buildings. The Downtown Design Review System Chapter 1 Page 6 6. Residential Parking/Garages/Driveways The visual impacts of parking—which includes driveways, garages and garage doors—should be minimized. A. Avoid parking in the front yard. 1) Traditionally, front yards were not used as paved parking lots, and instead, yards provided views to facades and open space. B. A garage should not dominate the street scene. 1) A garage should be subordinate to the primary structure on the site. A typical design guideline format as used in this document. A Typical Guideline A typical design guideline may contain five parts: • The first is the design element category under which the design guideline falls. • Second is an introductory discussion of the de- sign element and why it is important. Included in this discussion is a policy statement that describes a desired state or condition of the design element being discussed. • Third is the design guideline statement itself, which is typically performance-oriented, describ- ing a desired design treatment. • The design guideline statement is followed by supplementary information that is treated as sub- points of the guideline. These sub-points are listed as arabic numbers under each design guideline. • Additionally, a photograph or illustration may be provided, to clarify the intent of the guideline. In order to minimize the impact of a garage on the street scene, it should be detached and located to the rear of a building. It is important to note that all of the elements of the design guidelines (i.e., including the introductory and informational sections, the policy statement, and the sub-points) constitute the material upon which the Town will make its determination of the appropriate- ness of a proposed project. The numerical ordering of the guidelines does not imply a ranking of importance. The emphasis placed on individual guidelines varies on a case-by-case ba- sis, depending upon the context of the proposed project. The Downtown Design Review System Chapter 1 Page 7 Truckee's Local Rating System The following subcategories are used for classifying properties within Truckee's Historic Preservation Overlay District. They are explained in more detail in the definitions on pages 8 - 9: Category A. Essential Buildings that are individually eligible for the Na- tional Register are considered “Essential” structures in the local survey rating. These are buildings that retain the highest degree of integrity. Category B. Contributing Historic buildings that have experienced some alter- ations, yet still retain a relatively high degree of in- tegrity. Category C. Supporting Older buildings that have had substantial alterations but retain their overall form and scale, and which have the potential to be restored. Category D. Nonessential These structures have been altered so radically that the historic information is no longer interpretable and they no longer retain sufficient integrity to have his- toric significance. Applying the Ratings When Considering Property Improvements The historic survey criteria have implications with regard to the role of the Design Standards and Guide- lines. For example, for properties rated "Category A. Essential," preservation of the property to the high- est degree is the Town's goal and the guidelines that address preservation of existing historic features in place will be applied rigorously. For properties rated "Category B. Contributing" on the local form, preservation of those original features that survive is also a goal and, in addition, removal of non-historic alterations and reconstruction of his- toric features are objectives. Those guidelines that address repair and replacement of historic elements therefore are particularly relevant to these proper- ties. With respect to a demolition request the full list of criteria which are specified within the Development Code must be met in order to substantiate an eco- nomic hardship. Finally, in order to discourage specu- lative demolition of structures within the historic core, replacement plans are required prior to approval of any demolition application for a "contributing" prop- erty. These properties also receive a high priority for use of any incentives for preservation that may be of- fered. For "Category C. Supporting" properties, preservation of those historic features that do survive remains a goal as well. In addition, special encouragement will be provided for property owners to restore their prop- erties and the guidelines for removing non-historic al- terations and reconstruction of missing elements will be emphasized. Owners of properties in this category are strongly encouraged to restore their buildings to their historic condition, but greater flexibility in treat- ment of more recent alterations and in repair of his- toric materials will be available. Emphasis is placed on using preservation incentives. As well, the eco- nomic hardship criteria will be less extensive and re- placement plans are not required prior to demolition application approval. Also, demolition applications for structures in this category may be approved without going through the certificate of economic hardship process if the structure will be reconstructed in accor- dance with the Secretary of Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties. Finally, for properties in the "Category D. Nonessen- tial" category, preservation is not an objective. In these cases, the guidelines for new construction apply. Al- terations to the properties may occur that are com- patible with the overall character of the district. Demo- lition applications for structures in this category are handled through normal city permitting procedures for non-historic properties. The Downtown Design Review System Chapter 1 Page 8 Se c t . I - Ba c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n Se c t . I I - T re a t m e n t o f H i s t o r i c P r o p e r t i e s Ch a p t e r 4 : P r e s e r v a t i o n P r i n c i p l e s Ch a p t e r 5 : Ar c h i t e c t u r a l F e a t u r e s Ch a p t e r 6 : H i s t o r i c B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l s Ch a p t e r 7 : In d i v i d u a l B u i l d i n g C o m p o n e n t s Ch a p t e r 8 : Ad a p t i v e R e u s e Ch a p t e r 9 : Ad d i t i o n s Se c t . I I I - Sp e c i a l G u i d e l i n e s Ch a p t e r 1 0 : S i t e F e a t u r e s Ch a p t e r 1 1: S i g n s Ch a p t e r 1 2 : P u b l i c I m p r o v e m e n t s Se c t . I V - Ne w C o n s t . & C h a r a c t e r Ar e a s Renovate or alter a Category A, B or C historic building or structure. * ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Renovate or alter a non-historic, Category D building or structure. * ✓ ✓ Convert a non-commercial structure (e.g., a house or church) to a commercial use. ✓ ✓ Add onto an historic building or structure. ✓ ✓ Add onto a non-historic building or structure ✓ ✓ Install new, or modify existing landscaping or site features. ✓ ✓ Install new, or modify existing public streetscape elements or public buildings. ✓ Construct a new building or structure in a Character Area. ✓ ✓ ✓ Construct or alter a sign. ✓ ✓ Which Chapters to Use Depending upon the type of proposed development and its location in the Downtown, property owners and devel- opers should use the following matrix to determine which chapters contain relevant information. This will assist in understanding how this document will be used during the design review pro- cess. * These categories relate to the rating assigned in the Town’s Historic Resources and Architectural Inventory. The Town of Truckee classifies older buildings that have been evaluated for the historic significance into four categories. Of these, the first three categories (A, B, and C) are considered historically significant. The fourth category (Category D) is for buildings that are not considered historic. See the preceding page for further defini- tions. The Downtown Design Review System Chapter 1 Page 9 Definitions of Key Terms The degree to which a property owner must comply with design guidelines varies from project to project. The following terms related to compliance are used in the design guidelines contained in this document. Appropriate - In some cases, a stated action or design choice is defined as being “appropriate” in the text. In such cases, by choosing that design approach, the ap- plicant will be in compliance with the guideline. How- ever, in other cases, there may be another approach that is not expressly mentioned in the text which also may be deemed “appropriate.” Consider - When the term “consider” is used, a design suggestion is offered to the applicant as an example of one method of how the design guideline at hand could be met. Applicants may elect to follow the suggestion, but may also seek alter- native means of complying. Context - In many cases, the applicant is instructed to relate to the context of the project area. The “context” relates to those properties and structures adjacent Encourage - In some cases a particular design approach is “encouraged.” In such cases, that method should be employed, unless an alternative would meet the in- tent of the guideline. For example, a guideline ad- dressing the design of new buildings states that “New interpretations of traditional building styles are encour- aged.” In such a case, a new building should not di- rectly imitate a historic style. However, a specific con- dition may arise in which an imitation, accurately ex- ecuted, could be determined to be appropriate. Re- construction of a building that once stood on a site that conveys a particularly significant part of the community’s history is an example. Essential - Those buildings within the Truckee His- toric District that are individually eligible for the Na- tional Register are considered “Essential” structures in to, and within the same block, as the proposed project. In many cases, the applicant is instructed to relate to the context of the project area. The “context” relates to those properties and structures adjacent to, and within the same block, as the proposed project. Contributing - Buildings within the historic district boundaries that were built within the period of sig- nificance and, although they have experienced some alterations, still convey a sense of history and retain their historic form are categorized “Contributing.” These buildings would more strongly contribute to the historic district if they were returned to their original appearance through appropriate restoration. These also meet criteria for "contributing" properties for the National Register. Contributing buildings are desig- nated as Category B in the Town’s Historic Resources and Architectural Inventory. the local survey rating. These buildings are in com- paratively original condition, or have been appropri- ately restored. While the buildings might be improved by some further, relatively minor, restoration efforts, preservation is the primary goal. Essential buildings are designated as Category A in the Town’s Historic Resources and Architectural Inventory. Guideline - In the context of this document, a “guide- line” is a design preference that should be met when appropriate for a project. On a case by case basis a guideline may be relaxed by the review authority in order to facilitate compliance with another guideline that has been deemed more important, without com- promising the overall objectives of the document. The Downtown Design Review System Chapter 1 Page 10 Historic Structure - In general, an historic structure is one that is at least 50 years old or older, or is associ- ated with significant people or events. In the context of this document, an historic structure is one that dates from the town’s historic period of significance (1863 - 1950) used for defining context and retains an ad- equate amount of its integrity. Buildings that have been designated as Category A, B, or C in the Town’s Historic Resources and Architectural Inventory are considered historic structures. Imperative mood - Throughout this document, many of the guidelines are written in the imperative mood. The applicant is often instructed to “maintain” or “pre- serve” an established characteristic. For example, one guideline states: “Maintain the original proportions of a door.” In such cases, the user shall comply unless it is determined that the guideline should be relaxed in order to facilitate compliance with other guidelines. In any case, the overall objective of the Historic De- sign Guidelines shall not be compromised. Inappropriate - Inappropriate means impermissible. When the term “inappropriate” is used, the relevant design approach shall not be allowed. For example, one guideline states: “A new addition that creates an appearance inconsistent with the historic character of the building is inappropriate.” In this case, a design out of character with the historic building would not be approved. Non-Essential - These structures are those that, al- though they date from the period of significance, have been altered so radically that the historic information is no longer interpretable and they no longer merit preservation or restoration. In many of these build- ings, nearly all of the structure’s historic fabric has been replaced with new materials. Other nonessential struc- tures may lie outside the boundaries of the historic district, or may have been constructed outside the period of significance. Preferred - In some cases, the applicant is instructed that a certain design approach is “preferred.” In such a case, that approach should be employed, unless an al- ternative can be demonstrated to meet the intent of the guideline. For example, a guideline addressing de- sign character for a new building states: “A new de- sign that draws upon the fundamental similarities among historic buildings in the community (without copying them) is preferred.” In such a case, a design that imitates an historic style generally is inappropri- ate. However, a specific condition may arise in which an imitation, accurately executed, could be determined to be appropriate. Reconstruction of a building that once stood on a site and that conveys a particularly significant part of the community’s history is an ex- ample. Should - If the term “should” appears in a design guide- line, compliance is expected, when the particular con- dition described applies to the project at hand. How- ever, flexibility in applying the guideline may occur, when relaxing it would permit greater compliance with other guidelines and when the general intent is still met. For example, a guideline states: “ A historic chim- ney should not be removed.” In most cases, compli- ance would be expected. Supporting - There are buildings that were built within the period of significance but have had substantial al- terations. Typically, these buildings have been altered by the addition of non-historic siding, historic porch enclosures, and remodeled windows and doors. These buildings still convey a scale and character that sup- ports the overall feeling and association of the His- toric Preservation Overlay District. Many of these buildings could, through the removal of these inap- propriate alterations and with substantial restoration efforts, contribute to the National Register District and then could be reclassified as a Category B (Con- tributing) resource. Preservation of these buildings, when feasible, also is a goal. As they stand, support- ing buildings are designated as Category C in the Town’s Historic Resources and Architectural Inven- tory. When physical conditions permit or when feasible - In some design guidelines, the applicant is asked to comply with the statement “when feasible.” In these cases, compliance is required, except when the appli- cant can demonstrate that it is not physically possible to do so. The Downtown Design Review System Chapter 1 Page 11 Historic Overview Chapter 2 Page 11 CHAPTER 2 HISTORIC OVERVIEW This chapter provides a brief history of Truckee. It draws upon historic overview text developed by Kautz Environmental Consultants for the his- toric property survey. Other publications about the community also provided a contextual foun- dation. These are Fire & Ice: A Portrait of Truckee (Members of Truckee Donner Histori- cal Society 1994) and Truckee: An Illustrated History of the Town and Its Surroundings (Meschery 1978). The first real influx of Euroamerican people to the Sierra Nevada began in the 1840s. This was the ini- tial wave of emigrants who traveled across the west- ern half of the continent seeking their fortunes on the West Coast. By 1846, California had surpassed Or- egon as the primary emigrant destination. A popular route across the Sierra Nevada Range, which Ameri- can Indian groups had used for centuries, followed the course of the Truckee River and continued over what has become known as Donner Pass. This route lost favor temporarily after the 1846-47 Donner Party tragedy. The discovery of gold along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada opened the floodgates to the Califor- nia Gold Rush. However, the Lake Tahoe-Truckee area was not a destination; gold was to be found in the valleys of the American, Bear, Yuba, and Feather riv- ers on the other side of the crest. The Truckee River route was one of several options for entry into the California mines, and competition for freight and passenger traffic intensified between settlements along the trails. The Truckee River Ba- sin, where the Truckee River begins its eastward de- scent, served as a springboard for those attempting to make the ascent of another 1,000 feet. Truckee is situ- ated at approximately 6,000 feet above mean sea level, while the average elevation of the passes in the area is around 7,000 feet. In 1863, Joseph Gray built a cabin along an ancillary road, establishing what was then known as Gray’s Sta- tion, a stage stop. Unlike the rampant growth encoun- tered at new mineral discoveries, this was to be Truckee’s quiet and humble beginnings. The follow- ing year Joseph Gray and George Schaffer began the area’s first lumber mill partnership. Other people be- Early photographs illustrate a variety of designs for canopies along Commercial Row. Historic Overview Chapter 2 Page 12 gan to settle along the Truckee River, including a pros- pector named John Keiser and a blacksmith named S.S. Coburn. From 1864-1868, Truckee was known as Coburn’s Station, from its association with this man. By the early 1860s, plans were formulated for a rail- road crossing of the Sierra Nevada obstacle. This was preempted by the construction of an improved road through the Sierra. In 1864, the Dutch Flat and Donner Lake Wagon Road was opened over Donner Pass. It followed a nearly identical route through Truckee as the earliest emigrant had followed. This freight and passenger wagon road was situated near the proposed alignment of the transcontinental rail- road, as it was designed to facilitate transportation of supplies to points along the rail line. The road formed the final link in a continuous freight and passenger road from Dutch Flat, in California’s Mother Lode, to Comstock Mines near Virgina City, Nevada. By the summer of 1864, the California Stage Company, using Dutch Flat and Donner Lake Wagon Road, established regular stage connections between west and east, and Coburn’s Station grew exponentially with the traffic. Knowing that a railroad was in the works, and with the improved stage line in operation, more lumber mills began to make an appearance in and around the area. E.J. Brickell and George Geisendorfer were only two such persons realizing the region’s po- tential, but their Truckee Lumber Company (1867) would become a dominant player in the market. The year 1868 is pivotal to the story of Truckee be- cause the Central Pacific then conquered the summit and pulled its first locomotive into town, linking Truckee to the West Coast by rail. One month later, the settlement witnessed its first great fire, destroying all of Coburn’s Station except for Gray’s cabin and lumber mill, and causing the town to rebuild slightly east. The new town with its new railroad took on a new name, Truckee. The Dutch Flat Donner Lake Wagon Road became Main Street then Jibboom Street. The Central Pacific’s vision of its destiny was much grander, however, than just crossing this great mountain range; it was the spanning of a continent. This goal was realized in May 1869 in Utah and Truckee, as a result, became an important point be- tween East and West. A turn-of-the-century image of the United Methodist Church and early residences demonstrates the pervasive use of wood lap siding. In 1914 Main Street in downtown Truckee was des- ignated as the Lincoln Highway, the first coast to coast roadway in the United States. Contiguous segments within the various existing regional road systems were incorporated as interconnecting links in the Lincoln Highway. The route of the Lincoln Highway through The Truckee area benefitted by its transportation link helping to move goods and people across the mountains and by sending out its own products. Historic Overview Chapter 2 Page 13 Truckee closely follows segments of the original route of the Dutch Flat and Donner Lake Wagon Road and the Emigrant Trail. In 1927 portions of the Lincoln Highway were redesignated as the Victory Highway, a redundant road system conceived as a memorial to veterans of World War I. While the route through Truckee was referenced as the Victory Highway, many continued to call it the Lincoln Highway, hence caus- ing some confusion in later years. Truckee citizens and prominent business leaders realized the tourism po- tential of automobile travel along a nationally recog- nized highway and succeeded in getting the Victory Highway/Lincoln Highway constructed through town. In 1928 the Lincoln Highway/Victory High- way was incorporated into the federal highway sys- tem and the route through Truckee was designated as U.S. Route 40. The Truckee area benefitted by its transportation link by not only helping to move goods and people across the mountains, but by sending out its own products at the same time. The lumber mills, which now num- bered in the dozens, were inundated with orders from the burgeoning Comstock Lode in Nevada, and from the continued growth in California. Truckee’s alpine environment and transportation connection provided another opportunity: ice manufacture. Lumber com- panies capitalized on their frozen mill ponds, and soon other companies, devoted exclusively to ice manufac- ture, were appearing in town. For many years (1868- c.1920s), “ice harvesting was big business in the Truckee Area.” It was shipped by rail throughout the west, sent to cool mines in the Comstock and to keep California produce fresh on its journey to eastern mar- kets. Many ice companies operated in the Sierras, and Truckee boasted a few of its own (Trout Creek Ice Company, a.k.a., Henry’s Ice Company). This opera- tion was where the present-day Sierra Pacific Com- pany substation is located. From its origins as a stage stop, to the coming of the railroad and early lumber mills (from 1868 onward), Truckee was a full blown, growing community. It was not without its difficulties, however. Until things be- gan settling down in the 1890s, people knew Truckee as a Lawless Boomtown. Still, some of the finest neigh- borhoods in Truckee’s history would be built during this period, with the largest homes belonging to lum- ber barons like the Richardsons, Schaffer, and Burckhaulter. The Truckee Lumber Company, de- siring employee housing that is appropriate to such While Truckee was prospering with the lumber and ice industries in full production, a number of modest residences and outbuildings were built. a n important company, designed and built ‘Brickelltown’ along the west edge of town, near their mill and box factory (Brickelltown being named after E.J. Brickell, a partner in the operation). From its in- ception, the block was quite uniform in appearance, displaying Victorian Italianate influences on every home. Agriculture was also clearly a significant part of early Truckee history. This area in the Sierras was a “dairyman’s heaven.” The region provided summer pas- ture for herds brought in from central California, and in earlier years there were reportedly 15-20 dairy farms near Truckee, which yielded enormous quantities (60,000 pounds) of “premium quality” butter that was in turn sold at “premium” prices throughout the west’s urban markets. Two dairies are occasionally alluded The Varney-McIver Dairy is located along the extreme western margins of the historical community along Donner Pass Road. It is the only dairy that remains in the Downtown Truckee area. Historic Overview Chapter 2 Page 14 mid-1890s Truckee was host to Ice Carnivals, encour- aging people from California and Nevada to enjoy the mountain winters. Sleighing, tobogganing, dog races, and the first of two giant Ice Palaces were just a few of the attractions offered to tourists. The Whitney Hotel was one of the many buildings in Truckee to be affected by fire, and to be rebuilt. to around historic Truckee. The Von Fluee dairy was originally located on the south side of the Truckee River, occupying the lands around present-day River Street. The Varney-McIver Dairy is located along the extreme western margins of the historical community along Donner Pass Road. It is the only dairy that re- mains in the Downtown Truckee area. Many fires affected the town of Truckee. Besides the fire in 1868 that attacked Coburn’s Station, massive fires swept through Truckee’s residential and commer- cial districts in 1871, 1875, 1881, and again in 1883. With each fire and subsequent rebuilding, Truckee lost more of its early appearance. As a consequence, very few buildings remain from the earliest years of the Boomtown period. Like a mining town seeing its mineral riches thin out, by the 1890s Truckee too was feeling its resources dwindle. The town’s mainstay, lumbering, was depen- dent upon forests that were increasingly becoming depleted, and by the turn-of-the-century many mills had ceased operation. The ice industry, by providing the means to preserve produce, had proved vital to California’s agricultural growth, but was feeling in- creased competition from artificial refrigeration. Though this appeared to be a period of decline, Truckee’s residential neighborhoods continued to grow, particularly due to a large influx of Italian im- migrants. The railroad had made access to the town relatively easy, even in winter, and Truckee, long praised for its beautiful surroundings, began catering to an ever increasing, recreational clientele. By the Though fires still claimed some of Truckee’s large and important properties during this period, the misfor- tune of entire neighborhoods being destroyed appears to have been avoided. Growth during this period, the lack of wide-scale fires, and subsequent slower devel- opment in the later periods have contributed to the survival of much of Truckee’s late-nineteenth century historic fabric. Most of Truckee’s historic neighbor- hoods, especially north of the commercial district, are from this period. An early commercial row saloon and hotel, circa 1913, before fire hit the commercial district, included a distinctive tower at the corner. Though the lumber and ice industry’s days were num- bered, the town seemed to have found a new identity as a tourist destination. The town’s industrial over- tones gave way to peaceful, serene mountain beauty. The introduction of Italian families to the commu- nity coincided with the final expulsion of the last Chinese residents b y 1886. And the railroad, Truckee’s lifeline, was soon to witness and begin com- peting with the automobile as a primary transporta- tion source. Long a mainstay of Truckee, the Chinese first arrived with the railroad, laboring in large numbers to build it across the Sierra. Many stayed to settle in the com- munity, which was a tenuous partnership at best. By providing cheap labor, they were both sought by in- dustry and denounced by higher paid, European work- Historic Overview Chapter 2 Page 15 ers. Their community was frequently raided, harassed, and torn down. By 1878 they were forced to live south of the Truckee River, and a decade later, to move away altogether. By the early part of the twentieth century Truckee was sharing its moment in the spotlight with its sur- roundings. Movie companies began arriving in large numbers, using the town as a base camp while filming in the mountains. A particularly significant aspect of this period was the development of the Hilltop Rec- reation Area for winter sports. Although the snow-covered hillsides had been play areas for local residents since Truckee’s earliest years of settlement, the concept of organized (and economi- cally viable) winter sports was first introduced to the larger community by Charles McGlashan in about 1895. With the decline in the lumber industry, McGlashan had a vision of the area as a winter recre- ation destination for ice skating, tobogganing, sleigh rides, dog sled races, and ski contests. Ice carnivals with the famous ice palaces became prominent events in the mountain community from this time until about 1916. “Snowball Specials” (i.e., the winter excursion trains) continued to run until 1940 when the auto- mobile became preferred transportation. In the early 1900s to 1910s, recreational “ski-sport” was beginning to advance across the country. Several regional clubs (Tahoe and San Francisco’s Sierra Club) were formed by 1915. Locally, Truckee residents formed their own “Sierra Skiing Club” around 1909. A tow to haul toboggans up “Hilltop” first appeared in the 1910 Truckee Ice Carnival, and when the Truckee Ski Club formed in 1913 they utilized this tow. The area presently known as the “Hilltop” was pur- chased c. 1910-1920 from railroad developer Charles Crocker for use as a recreational ski area. The hilltop lodge was the first building constructed (c. 1928-29) on the property and was built by members of the Truckee Ski Club, the Truckee Outing Club, and Si- erra Dog Derby Association. The hilltop was long known for its wooden scaffold ski jump constructed just east of the Hilltop Lodge. Guy Coates indicates that seven time Olympic ski jumping champion Lars Haugen designed Truckee’s famous great wooden ski jump. The jump was demolished c. 1950s or 1960s. The ski hill reportedly had one of the nation’s first mechanized ski lifts, and the property as a whole rep- resents a significant historic recreational complex for the community, and larger region. The rope tow for the ski lift was installed about 1928, around the time of construction of the Hilltop Lodge. The current ski lift was reportedly constructed c. 1960. The new Sierra Tavern was built in the late 1930s as part of the Truckee commercial row. The Stone Garage circa 1920, built on the site of Gray’s cabin, provided for the maintenance needs of the automobile.. Historic Overview Chapter 2 Page 16 Small hotels, such as the one seen above provided visitors to the Truckee area with a resting place after their recreational pursuits. To the west and south of Truckee were the Donner campsite and Lake Tahoe, which became more easily accessible with the automobile’s arrival. Fishing, camp- ing, boating, and picnics were summer’s favorite ac- tivities, while winter sports, kept Truckee alive all year long. From the early twentieth century until World War II, Truckee was the area’s gateway to year-round recreation. Fire again paid a visit to Truckee, attacking the com- mercial district in 1913 and again in the 1920s. The fact that Truckee rebuilt, once again, is proof of its continued economic viability and prosperity in the early decades of the twentieth century. It is also for this reason that the commercial district has a later his- toric feeling than the surrounding residential commu- nities. The exceptions, of course, are the older brick businesses, such as Cabona’s and the Capital Build- ing, whose owners had earlier learned how to prevent fire’s destructiveness. For all the large fires that passed through town, numerous smaller blazes seem to have done just as much damage - perhaps not monetarily, but to Truckee’s character. The elaborate Sherritt House, both Truckee Hotels, the original Sierra Tav- ern, the second Ice Palace, the High School, the fa- mous McGlashan mansion, and recently, the com- manding Masonic building, not to mention dozens of residences, have vanished from the Truckee landscape for this reason. As a moment of closure, the Truckee Lumber Com- pany, in existence since the 1860s, finally shut its doors during the Gateway period, ironically due to a fire. By the 1930s, the last remaining ice companies had also ceased operations, no longer able to compete with modern refrigeration technology. While the economic mainstays of the Truckee area, transportation and logging, have persisted into the twentieth century, the Lake Tahoe-Truckee area is now noted more for its recreational opportunities than anything else. Lake Tahoe, Squaw Valley, and the other areas surrounding Truckee have become a huge playground supporting a wide array of activities. How- ever, the historical imprint of the railroad and logging boomtown is still very apparent in Truckee and its environs. Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 17 CHAPTER 3 ARCHITECTURAL STYLES Introduction Truckee contains a diversity of architectural styles representing its history of commercial, residential, in- stitutional and industrial development. This rich ar- chitectural heritage enhances the town and provides a strong sense of place. This chapter provides a brief overview of architectural styles found in Truckee. It is not exhaustive. Some architectural styles are not included here because they are either less significant to the historical development of the town or are too few in number to merit inclusion. Property owners should review these descriptions care- fully. In many cases, the design guidelines that follow make reference to the characteristics of the building styles that are presented in this chapter. This will aid the property owner in choosing appropriate design so- lutions for any proposed work. Historic Reources and Architectural Inventory Update This indicates that well over half of the buildings re- corded within the project area date from the earliest phase (1863-1909). The first time of unprecedented growth—when 43% of downtown Truckee’s existing construction occurred—clearly had the highest rate of architectural construction. This “boom” was fol- lowed by a brief recession around the turn-of-the-20th century when the lumber industry began its decline. Shortly thereafter, another resurgence in development occurred, but then dropped off around the late 1930s and into the 1940s. Age distribution of properties included in the architectural survey for buildings constructed before 1950 mid 20th Century 2% early to mid 20th Century 8% late 19th Century 43% Some of the information found in this chapter on Truckee’s architectural styles is adapted from the Town of Truckee: Historic Resources and Architec- tural Inventory Update, prepared by Kautz Environ- mental Consultants, Inc., in 2002. In particular, in- formation regarding when construction occurred in Truckee, as well as the different types of buildings that were constructed, is provided. Construction Activity in Truckee The architectural survey evaluated all properties con- structed before 1950. Based on the periods of con- struction identified during the Kautz Historic Re- sources and Architectural Inventory Update, much of the construction of Truckee’s representative archi- tecture can be characterized in the following pie chart. early 20th Century 32% late 19th to early 20th Century 15% Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 18 Building Form and Scale Generally, it appears that among all buildings recorded, the predominate architectural form is the gable-front residential building. Nearly 40% of all structures sur- veyed in the Historic Preservation Overlay District are gable-front. Buildings with cross-gable plans—such as T-gable, L-gable, gable-front-and-wing and I-plans— are also represented. The cross-gable, another residen- tial building form, is found on 17% of the structures. Other residential building forms include: side-gables (12%), pyramidal/four-squares (1%), hipped gables (2%), clipped gables (3%), and shed (3%). Commercial buildings, which have rectangular forms with flat or slightly sloping roofs, make up 13% of the buildings. Among all the buildings recorded in the Inventory, the building height category is dominated by the one- story form. This, again, is representative of the domi- nant residential architecture in Truckee, with 63% of all structures being one-story in height. Buildings of various heights are found throughout Truckee, how- ever. One-and-one-half story (19%), two story (13%), three story (1%), and four story (1%) can all be found. Architectural Styles The dominant architectural style represented in Truckee is a modest, relatively unadorned Folk/Ver- nacular style (48%). Folk/Vernacular houses, gener- ally constructed circa 1860-1890 in Truckee, are char- acterized by gable-front forms and massed-plans. These buildings are relatively unadorned and also include forms of the gable-front-and-wing, hall-parlor, I-house, Architectural Building Form mixed, other category 10% side-gable, and pyramidal families. Originally, these buildings displayed porches of very simple construc- tion (partial or full front, and/or wrap-around), along with minor variations in roof pitch and window place- ment (all typically double-hung, tall and rectangular). The second most frequent style is that of the vernacu- lar commercial building (16%). The simple Folk Vic- torian style is also well represented (9%) along with the Craftsman (10%). Craftsman buildings are gener- ally a single story, wood framed and have low pitched gabled roofs with wide eaves and exposed rafter tails. Other characteristics include full or partial width porches often under the principal roof and supported by tapered, squared columns or pedestals. Cladding varies greatly including wood clapboard, wood shingles, stone, brick, concrete and stucco. More elaborate styles, Italianate (5%), Gothic Revival (3%), and Queen Anne (3%) are present but in lim- ited numbers. Italianate styling is characteristically rep- resented by buildings of two to three stories (rarely one story), low to moderate pitched roofs with over- hanging eaves and decorative brackets beneath, tall narrow windows with elaborate arched or curved forms and decorative crowns, and occasionally cupolas or towers. The Gothic Revival style is reflected in build- ings with steeply pitched roofs (usually with cross gables), decorated verge boards, windows with pointed- arch shapes, and a one-story porch often flattened by decorative Gothic arch detailing. Queen Anne styl- ing is reflected by features including a steeply pitched roof often of irregular shape, a dominant front-facing gable, patterned shingles and wall texture patterns, bay windows, asymmetrical facade appearance, and par- tial and full-width porches generally with elaborate spindle work support posts and balustrade. shed 3% clipped gable 3% hipped gable 2% pyramidal 1% flat 13% front-gabled 39% Commercial Buildings Because these buildings reflect commercial/trade de- velopment within the community over a relatively broad frame of time (1870s-1940s) there is not one dominant style or design, other than Vernacular which could accurately describe the commercial architecture. The historic commercial buildings vary in height from one story to four stories. Most commercial buildings side-gabled 12% cross-gabled 17% along Front Street are constructed of masonry (brick or brick and stone) materials, and are relatively mod- est in design with built-up shed or flat roofs. Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 19 Commercial architectural styles include Neo Spanish Colonial; Art Deco; Frontier Vernacular; and mod- est early 20th century vernacular commercial build- ings, frequently with elaborate brick work patterning in multiple colors. Overall, the condition of Truckee’s historic commercial buildings is relatively good, al- though most have slightly diminished levels of integ- rity resulting from alterations. Residential Buildings Similar to Commercial Row, the domestic properties along Truckee’s residential streets and neighborhoods vary in architectural styles, although the form of a one to 1-1/2 story, modest, gable-front, appears most fre- quently. In general, most historic residential buildings appear to represent an eclectic mixture of working class houses dating from the late 1870s to the 1940s. Within each neighborhood, building ages vary al- though those constructed during 1891-1909 comprise nearly half of all residences. Buildings constructed from 1863 to 1890 and 1911 to 1940 are nearly equally represented and only a few buildings from the early Modern Years are present in the district. Unfor- tunately, relatively few of the residential properties from 1863-1890 have survived unchanged. Although a number of residential buildings are large, there are relatively few with surviving elements that display “high-style” with respect to architectural design. The most notable of these are the Kruger-White House on Donner Pass Road and the Richardson House on High Street. Several large properties along High Street, East Jibboom Street, West River Street and Donner Pass Road have limited surviving detail- ing that suggests at one time they displayed grander architectural styles. A summary of key characteristics of the most preva- lent building types and styles appears on the follow- ing pages. Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 20 Folk/Vernacular circa 1863-1910 A simple cross-gable vernacular form. Sometimes referred to as “other,” “no style” or “folk houses,” vernacular residential building reflect their basic functions and have modest detailing. The houses are constructed of simple designs, some of which re- mained common for decades. Many of these designs were indeed based on popular styles of the time, but the vernacular structures were much simpler in form, detail and function. Elements from other styles found in the district will appear on the vernacular types but in simple arrangements. While the neighborhood includes “folk houses” of sev- eral types, the most prevalent is the gable-front. The gable-front Vernacular, usually one-story, has a front- facing gable roof with a full-width front porch. Characteristics • hipped roof over the main block; projecting wing with front-facing gable • porch, extending the length of the building, with shed roof on one-story; often a gable on two-story examples • usually round columns • tripartite, often Palladian window in upper story of gable • tripartite division of windows on projecting wing • clapboard wood siding, or shingles A raised, gable-front vernacular. Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 21 Folk Victorian circa 1863-1910 Technically the word “Victorian” refers to the long reign of Queen Victoria, which lasted from 1833 to 1901 and encompassed the rich variety of architec- tural styles that were popular during the nineteenth century. Architecturally the word “Victorian” evokes the complexity and irregularity seen in the massing and materials of modest homes to large mansions. The use of Victorian era styles became available with the advent of rail transportation; access to national mar- kets and culture was reflected in its architecture. The majority of Truckee’s Folk Victorian houses do not represent pure examples. Simply describing a house as “Victorian” can be misleading because home builders tended to take elements from one style and mix it with another. Still, the term conjures up the image of a one or two story house, with an asymmetri- cal form, a steeply-pitched roof and “lots of ginger- bread.” Characteristics • complex massing made of towers, turrets, dormers, gables, bay windows and porches • shingles are the most commonly used embellish- ment, especially in gable ends • horizontal wood siding, often with a “crispness” that gives the building a repetition of light and shadow • sometimes a combination of materials was used, such as horizontal siding on the first story and shingles on the second • fancy scroll cut wood work, especially around gables and porches • wrought or cast iron as cresting along ridge lines or as railings and fencing • double-hung sash windows, made of wood • large, plate-glass window with a fixed transom, often with leaded or stained glass • Palladian windows in gable ends • windows are often grouped in thirds (tripartite) in varying combinations A hip-roof cottage with turned posts on an inset porch. Jigsaw ornamental trim is a signature of Folk Victorian building. Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 22 Original Gothic windows on the United Methodist Church Gothic Revival circa 1863-1880 The Gothic Revival style was most popular in this country during the 1870s. In a broader context, the style was part of the Picturesque Movement that val- ued emotion over rational thought. As a rejection of classicism the most vocal proponent of this style, An- drew Jackson Downing, emphasized vertical lines, deep colors and the use of applied ornament. Characteristics • steeply pitched roof • cross gable roof plan, or • side gable roof plan with central cross gable over the door • clapboard or plaster siding • quoins • decorative barge board along eaves of main gables and dormers • two-over-two, double-hung sash windows • pediments over windows • bay windows • lancet windows • elaborate porch railings: turned posts, cut-out boards Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 23 Italianate circa 1863-1885 The Italianate style, along with other styles of the Pic- turesque Movement such as Gothic Revival and the Victorian Era, were a reaction to the formal classi- cism of the Greek Revival style. Popularized by An- drew Jackson Downing’s pattern books published in the 1840s and 1850s, the Italianate style began to in- troduce more exuberant detailing to structures; such as rounded windows (often paired), decorative brack- ets and elaborate window hoods. Commercial Characteristics • two or three stories • quoins • decorative paired brackets • double doors with glass panels • double-hung, narrow upper-story windows, often with round arch heads Residential Characteristics • low-pitched hipped roof • brick, wood clapboard, plaster • overhanging eaves • ornate treatment of the eaves, including the use of paired brackets, modillions and dentil courses • double-hung, narrow windows, often with round arch heads • window panes are either one-over-one or two- over-two • protruding sills • transom, often curved, above the front door • ornate porch treatment, with round columns or square posts, and bargeboard ornament Projecting round arch window hoods. Deep Italianate bracket. Overhanging eaves with ornate treatment. Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 24 Craftsman circa 1905-1930 Exposed rafter ends and overhanging eaves. Tapered, or “battered” porch columns reflect Craftsman details in this cottage. Craftsman homes were originally inspired by two Cali- fornia brothers—Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene—who practiced in Pasadena from 1893 to 1914. Beginning as simple bungalows, the Craftsman style was know as the “ultimate bungalow.” Influenced by the English Arts and Crafts movement and oriental architecture, elements such as low-pitched gabled roofs, wide eaves, exposed roof rafters and porches with tapered columns were common. Craftsman Bungalow Characteristics • low-pitched gabled roof • decorative beams or braces under gables • one-over-one, double-hung windows, or • one-light, fixed window; with fixed transom • prominent lintels and sills • full or partial, open porch with square posts and tapered arched openings • gabled dormers • exposed rafters • wide eaves • wood clapboard, stucco • concrete, brick or stone foundation Craftsman Cottage Characteristics • steeply pitched gabled roof • decorative beams or braces under gables • exposed rafters • full or partial, open porch • wood clapboard or shingles • concrete, brick or stone foundation Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 25 Queen Anne circa 1885-1905 Proponents of the Queen Anne style found their in- spiration from the medieval art and architecture of its namesake’s reign (1702-1714), growing out of recog- nition of vernacular, modest, pre-industrial structures and a desire to bring about a close relationship of ar- chitecture to ornamentation. In the United States, it developed from a desire to identify a national style. Both the Centennial Expo- sition, held in Philadelphia in 1876, and the popular- ity of New England coastal towns exposed Americans to their colonial, vernacular architectural past. The wood clapboard and shingle houses that were con- structed in eastern Massachusetts during the seven- teenth and early eighteenth centuries brought about the usual longing of security and simplicity that ear- lier ages always evoke, and were all the more appeal- ing because they were seen as purely “American.” The new Queen Anne style used the broad gables, long sloping roofs and small pane windows of these early houses for the exterior, while giant hearths, inglenooks and spacious, inviting halls influenced interior design. Characteristics • irregular, asymmetrical massing • use of bay windows, towers, turrets, dormers, gables—anything that protrudes from the wall and the roof • use of varying wall textures • use of ornament: wooden scroll work on porches and gables, ornate metal railings • windows with leaded or stained glass • windows with large panes of glass surrounded by small panes • tall brick chimneys Irregular massing and varied materials. Slim, ornamented Queen Anne chimneys, combined with the Folk Victorian jigsaw detailing. Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 26 Commercial Vernacular circa 1863-1920 Horizontal wood siding. Large display windows at street level. Usually limited to two to four stories, vernacular com- mercial building are divided into two distinct bands. The first floor is more commonly transparent, so goods can be displayed, while the second story is usually re- served for a residential, office or storage space. In Truckee, some smaller one-story examples exist, as do the early false front storefront. False Front (with gable roof) Characteristics • one to one-and-one-half stories in height • gable roof with “false front” commercial facade • horizontal wood siding • large display windows or bay windows • recessed entries • simple bracketed cornices (Early) Flat Roof Characteristics • two to four stories in height • primarily masonry construction, with wood re- served for framing elements and architectural de- tails • large display windows • transom lights, above entry and storefront win- dows • kickplate, below the storefront window • central, recessed entry • tall second story windows • decorative cornice at the top of the building • sometimes a mid-belt cornice separates the first floor from the upper floors Decorative cornice and parapet. Tall upper story windows. Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 27 (Later) One-Story Flat Roof Characteristics • one-story in height • brick construction • large display windows • central, recessed entry • patterns in brick-work for ornamentation and cornice element One-story flat false fronts. Decorative brick corbeled cornice. Architectural Styles Chapter 3 Page 28 Railroad/Industrial circa 1863-1910 Gabled end details. There were two classes of railroad and industrial type buildings seen in Truckee historically. Simple indus- trial buildings were scattered throughout the railroad right-of-way. These buildings had little architectural detailing. The buildings were often “clustered” in groups to service a single activity (e.g., lumber yard or ware- housing). Commercial oriented railroad buildings were also found in the railroad right-of-way, but these pro- vided services to residents and visitors and did exhibit some ornamentation and detail. The many hotels and passenger depots that once existed in downtown are examples. Characteristics • one to one-and-one-half stories in height • gable roof • horizontal wood siding • simple building forms • simple brackets and other details on commercial- oriented buildings Simple buildings and roof forms. Clustered buildings. Simple roof form. Preservation Principles Chapter 4 Page 29 CHAPTER 4 PRESERVATION PRINCIPLES This chapter presents basic design principles for his- toric preservation that form the foundation for the design policies and guidelines for rehabilitation that follow. Basic Preservation Theory In basic historic preservation theory, three concepts are particularly important to understand: historic “sig- nificance,” the time “period” that defines it and the physical “integrity” of a property. The Concept of Significance A building possessing architectural significance is one that represents the work of a noteworthy architect or builder, possesses high artistic value or that well rep- resents a type, period or method of construction. An historically significant property is one associated with significant persons, or with significant events or his- torical trends or is a property already determined to be contributing to the significance of a recognized Character Area. The Period of Significance Downtown Truckee has a period of significance, which is the time period during which the area gained its ar- chitectural and historical importance. It is generally recognized that a certain amount of time should pass before the historical significance of a property can be evaluated. The National Register of Historic Places, for example, generally requires that a property be at least 50 years old or have extraordinary importance before it may be considered for listing. Although individual historic neighborhoods may have a different period of significance, the downtown as a whole has a period of significance that spans approxi- mately 87 years (1863-1950). The Concept of Integrity In addition to being from an historical period, an his- toric property also should retain sufficient “integrity”; that is, a high percentage of the structure should date from the period of significance. The majority of a building’s structural system and materials should be original, as should the majority of its character-defin- ing features. Special Circumstances Some historic properties may be individually signifi- cant and not represent the community’s period of sig- nificance. For example, individual historic resources that are significant in their own right may have been moved into Truckee. These structures should also be preserved. Preservation Principles The following preservation principles apply to all his- toric properties in Truckee’s Historic Preservation Overlay District. Respect the historic design character of a building. Don’t try to change its style or make it look older, newer or more ornate than it really was. Confusing the character by mixing elements of different styles is also an example of disrespect. Seek uses that are compatible with the historic char- acter of a building. Building uses that are closely related to the original use are preferred. Every reasonable effort should be made to provide a compatible use for the building that will require minimal alteration to the building and its site. An example of an appropriate adaptive use is con- Preservation Principles Chapter 4 Page 30 Original design intact: High degree of integrity Design modified, but retaining sufficient integrity Design substantially altered: Integrity is lost. A historic building must retain sufficient integrity of its form, details and materials, as well as its overall character. verting a residence into a bed and breakfast establish- ment. This can be accomplished without radical al- teration of the original architecture. When a substantial change in function is necessary to keep a building in active service, then a use that re- quires the least alteration to significant exterior ele- ments is preferred. It may be that, in order to adapt a building to the proposed new use, such a radical alter- ation to significant elements would be required that the entire concept is inappropriate. Experience has shown, however, that in most cases designs can be de- veloped that both respect the historic integrity of the building and accommodate new functions. Early alterations, additions or construction more than 50 years old may have become historically sig- nificant and thus merit preservation. Many additions or alterations to buildings that have taken place in the course of time are themselves evi- dence of the history of a building and its neighbor- hood and therefore may merit preservation. More recent alterations, additions or new construc- tion that are not historically significant may be re- moved. For example, stucco may presently obscure original wood. In this case, removal of this alteration, and res- toration of the original material is strongly encour- aged. In general, most alterations less than fifty years old lack historic significance. Preservation Terminology Preservation projects may include maintenance of existing historic elements, repairs to deteriorated ones, the replacement of missing features and construction of new additions. The following terms shall apply in addition to the basic definitions set forth in Chapter 1. 1. Demolition. To tear down or destroy a building or a building element. In a total demolition, the entire structure is removed from the site, includ- ing original materials. In other cases, a partial demolition may occur. A rear wall may be re- moved, for example to construct an addition. If a partial demolition is extensive, it can result in such a substantial loss of integrity that the building may no longer retain historic significance. 2. Maintenance. Some work focuses on keeping the property in good working condition by repairing features as soon as deterioration becomes appar- ent, using procedures that retain the original char- acter and finish of the features. In some cases, preventive maintenance is executed prior to no- ticeable deterioration. No alteration or reconstruc- tion is involved. Such work is considered “main- tenance.” Preservation Principles Chapter 4 Page 31 3. Preservation. The act or process of applying mea- sures to sustain the existing form, integrity and material of a building or structure, as well as the existing form and vegetative cover of a site is de- fined as “preservation.” It may include initial sta- bilization work, where necessary, as well as ongo- ing maintenance of historic building materials. Essentially, the property is kept in good condi- tion. 4. Reconstruction. To recreate, out of new materi- als, a replica of an original feature of a building. This technique is often used to replace ornamen- tation that may have been removed. When ap- plied selectively i n an overall rehabilitation project, reconstruction of missing elements can enhance the historic appearance. In some rare cases, an entire building is reconstructed to match the original appearance. Such a structure would be compatible with its historic context, but would 8. Restoration. To “restore,” one reproduces the ap- pearance of a building exactly as it looked at a particular moment in time; to reproduce a pure style—either interior or exterior. This process may include the removal of later work or the replace- ment of missing historic features. Planning a Preservation Project The following preservation principles apply to historic properties in Truckee and form the basis of the guide- lines that follow. 1. If a feature is intact and in good condition, main- tain it as such. 2. If the feature is deteriorated or damaged, repair it to its original condition. 3. If it is not feasible to repair the feature, then re- place it with one that is the same or similar in character (materials, detail, finish) to the original one. Replace only that portion that is beyond re- not be rated as having historic significance. pair. 4. If the feature is missing entirely, reconstruct it 5. Rehabilitation. “Rehabilitation” is the process of returning a property to a state that makes a con- temporary use possible while still preserving those portions or features of the property which are sig- nificant to its historical, architectural and cultural values. Rehabilitation may include the adaptive use of the building and additions may also occur. 6. Remodeling. To remake or to make over the de- sign image of a building is to “remodel” it. The appearance is changed by removing original de- tails and by adding new features that are out of character with the original. Remodeling is inap- propriate for historic buildings. 7. Renovation. To “renovate” means to improve by repair, to revive. In renovation, the usefulness and appearance of the building is enhanced. The ba- sic character and significant details are respected and preserved, but some sympathetic alterations may also occur. Alterations should be reversible, such that future owners may restore the building to its original design, should they wish to do so. from appropriate evidence. 5. If a new feature or addition is necessary, design it in such a way as to minimize the impact on origi- nal features. In essence, the least level of intervention is preferred. By following this tenet, the highest degree of integrity will be maintained for the property. Preservation Principles Chapter 4 Page 32 The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings The design guidelines in this document incorporate principles set forth in The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties— a widely accepted set of basic preservation design prin- ciples. The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards are general rehabilitation guidelines established by the National Park Service. These standards apply in Truckee in addition to the guidelines set forth in this document. The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards are a part of the these Historic Design Guidelines and will be applied in the same manner as other guide- lines, including the provision for flexibility as described in the “Definitions of Key Terms” in Chapter 1. The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards will apply to buildings and resources designated as Category A and B in the Historic Resources and Architectural Inven- tory and to buildings and resources designated as Cat- egory C when rehabilitative work is proposed to re- classify the building or resource to Category A or B. 1. A property shall be used for its historic pur- pose or be placed in a new use that requires minimal change to the defining characteris- tics of the building and its site and environ- ment. 2. The historic character of a property shall be retained and preserved. The removal of his- toric materials or alteration of features and spaces that characterize a property shall be avoided. 3. Each property shall be recognized as a physi- cal record of its time, place, and use. Changes that create a false sense of historical develop- ment, such as adding conjectural features or architectural elements from other buildings, shall not be undertaken. 4. Most properties change over time; those changes that have acquired historic signifi- cance in their own right shall be retained and preserved. 5. Distinctive features, finishes, and construction techniques or examples of craftsmanship that characterize a historic property shall be pre- served. 6. Deteriorated historic features shall be repaired rather than replaced. Where the severity of deterioration requires replacement of a distinc- tive feature, the new feature shall match the old in design, color, texture, and other visual qualities and, where possible, materials. Re- placement of missing features shall be substan- tiated by documentary, physical, or pictorial evidence. 7. Chemical or physical treatments, such as sand- blasting, that cause damage to historic materi- als shall not be used. The surface cleaning of structures, if appropriate, shall be undertaken using the gentlest means possible. 8. Significant archeological resources affected by a project shall be protected and preserved. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures shall be undertaken. 9. New additions, exterior alterations, or related new construction shall not destroy historic ma- terials that characterize the property. The new work shall be differentiated from the old and shall be compatible with the massing, size, scale, and architectural features to protect the historic integrity of the property and its envi- ronment. 10. New additions and adjacent or related new construction shall be undertaken in such a manner that if removed in the future, the es- sential form and integrity of the historic prop- erty and its environment would be unimpaired. Alterations and additions to existing properties should not be discouraged when such alterations and addi- tions do not destroy significant historical, architectural or cultural material. Such design should be compat- ible with the size, scale, color, material and character of the property, neighborhood and environment. Preservation of Architectural Features Chapter 5 Page 33 CHAPTER 5 PRESERVATION OF ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Introduction Ornamental trim, including cornices, brackets and moldings are usually key character-defining features that contribute to the significance of historic struc- tures in Truckee. This chapter provides general guide- lines for treatment of such features. These apply to all historic structures. In addition, chapter six which fol- lows, provides more information for some of the most typical details. Both chapters apply. The best way to preserve historic building features is through well-planned maintenance. In some cases, historic building features may be damaged or deterio- rated. When damage or deterioration occurs, repair the feature and any other related problems. In other situations, however, some features, or portions of the feature, may be beyond repair. In such a case, con- sider replacement. It is important, however, that the extent of replacement features be minimized, because the original feature contributes to the authenticity of the property as a historic resource. Even when the replacement feature exactly matches that of the origi- nal, the integrity of a historic building is to some ex- tent compromised when extensive amounts of a fea- ture or features are removed. This is because the origi- nal feature exhibits a record of the labor and crafts- manship from an earlier time. It is also important to recognize that all features weather over time and that a scarred finish to a feature does not represent an in- ferior feature, but simply reflects the age of the build- ing. Preserving original features that show signs of wear is therefore preferred to their replacement. Topics Discussed in this Chapter: 1. Preservation of historic features 2. Repair of deteriorated features 3. Replacement with new features 4. Reconstruction of missing features Historic features, including building and architectural details, building form and scale contribute to the character and significance of a structure and should be preserved. References: ☞ Also consult The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings. ☞ Also consult The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Illustrated Guidelines for Preserving, Rehabilitating, Restoring, and Reconstructing Historic Buildings. Preservation of Architectural Features Chapter 5 Page 34 1. Preservation of Historic Features Overall, a high percentage of the original materials and features of a property must be maintained in a good condition, in order to retain the integrity of the resource as an historic property. Historic features, in- cluding architectural details, form and scale contrib- ute to the character and significance of a structure and should be preserved. Continued maintenance is the best preservation method. A. Protect and maintain significant stylistic features. 1) Maintain historic features so that intervention is not required. Employ preventative treatments such as rust removal, caulking, limited paint re- moval and reapplication of paint. B. Avoid removing or altering significant architec- tural features. 1) Original doors, windows, porches, turned col- umns, brackets and jigsaw ornaments are examples of architectural features which should not be re- moved or altered. Maintain character-defining features. Then, repair only those features that are deteriorated. Finally, replace only those features that are beyond repair. Employ treatments such as rust removal, caulking, limited paint removal and reapplication of paint in preservation procedures. References: ☞ For treatment of architectural features on non-historic buildings and for new buildings see Chapter 13. Preservation of Architectural Features Chapter 5 Page 35 2. Repair of Deteriorated Features In some cases, original architectural features may be deteriorated. All details weather over time and a scarred finish does not represent an inferior material, but simply reflects the age of the building. Where re- pair is necessary, however, these guidelines apply. A. Repair those features that are deteriorated. 1) Isolated areas of damage may be stabilized using consolidants. For example, epoxies and resins may be considered for wood repair. 2) Patch, piece-in, splice, consolidate or otherwise stabilize existing materials. 3) Removing a damaged feature that can be repaired is inappropriate. 4) Protect other architectural features that are adja- cent to the area being worked on. B. When disassembly of an historic feature is neces- sary for its restoration, minimize damage to the origi- nal material. 1) Document the location of an historic feature to be disassembled so it may be repositioned accu- rately. C. Use procedures for cleaning, refinishing and re- pairing an architectural feature that will not damage its appearance or material. 1) When choosing a preservation treatment, use the gentlest means possible that will achieve the de- sired results. Sandblasting is inappropriate. 2) Repairs such as rust removal, caulking, limited paint removal and reapplication of paint are rec- ommended. reconstructed piece spliced in to the original original molding Repair only those features that are deteriorated. When disassembly of an historic feature is required in a restoration procedure, document its location so it may be repositioned accurately. Maintain character-defining features such as original porches. Repair those features that are deteriorated. Preservation of Architectural Features Chapter 5 Page 36 3. Replacement with New Features While restoration of a deteriorated feature is the pre- ferred alternative, replacement may be necessary if it is beyond repair. The new material should match that being replaced in design, color, texture and other vi- sual qualities. A. Replace a deteriorated feature in-kind. 1) Use the same kind of material as the original when feasible. 2) In some instances, a substitute material may be acceptable if the size, shape, texture and finish convey the visual appearance of the original ma- terial. B. When replacing a deteriorated feature remove only that which is deteriorated and must be replaced. 1) The new element should be similar in size, shape, texture and finish. 4. Reconstruction of Missing Features If an original feature is missing, reconstructing it is encouraged. This is especially important in Truckee, where many buildings have lost significant features. A. Reconstructing a missing feature is encouraged. 1) The design should be substantiated by physical or pictorial evidence to avoid creating a misrepre- sentation of the building’s genuine heritage. 2) A design that is based on details from similar struc- tures within the Character Area may be consid- ered. For example, where “scars” on exterior sid- ing suggest the location of decorative brackets but no record exists of its design, then an historic bracket on another house that is clearly similar in character may be used as a model. 3) When reconstructing a feature, use the same ma- terial as the original when feasible. In some cases, however, an alternative material may be consid- ered. B. Adding a new decorative element that did not exist historically is inappropriate. 1) Conjectural designs that cannot be substantiated by written, physical or pictorial evidence are gen- erally inappropriate. Replacement of missing architectural elements should be based on accurate duplications of original features. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 37 CHAPTER 6 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL BUILDING COMPONENTS Introduction This chapter presents design guidelines for the treat- ment of individual building components that make up the exterior of an historic structure. They are orga- nized into nine design topics, of which the first four apply to commercial buildings and the last three ap- ply to residential buildings. The others apply to both types of structures. Preserving all key building components is a high pri- ority for “Essential” buildings. Preserving those that exist and reconstructing missing ones are high priori- ties on facades visible from the public way for “Con- tributing” buildings. On “Supporting” buildings, pre- serving existing features is also a priority and recon- structing missing ones is strongly encouraged for pri- mary facades. Topics Discussed in this Chapter: 1. Commercial Storefronts 2. Recessed Entries 3. Canopies 4. Cornices 5. Windows and Doors 6. Roofs 7. Porches 8. Building Foundations 9. Chimneys and Stovepipes References: ☞ Other building components may be addressed in Chapter 5: Preservation of Architectural Features. ☞ For alterations to non-historic buildings and for new construction, see Chapter 13. ☞ Also consult The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings. ☞ Also consult The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Illustrated Guidelines for Preserving, Rehabilitating, Restoring, and Reconstructing Historic Buildings. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 38 1. Commercial Storefronts Commercial buildings typically have a clearly defined primary entrance and large windows that display goods and services offered inside. The repetition of these standard elements creates a visual unity on the street that should be maintained. All storefront components should be preserved. Large plate glass display windows are typically supported on a bulkhead, or kickplate. In most cases, a second, hori- zontal band of glass, or transom, is mounted above the main display window. A. Preserve the historic character of a storefront, when it is intact. 1) See the procedures for maintenance in Chapter 5. B. If a storefront is altered, restoring it to the origi- nal design is encouraged. 1) Historic photographs of Truckee should be used when determining the original character of a store- front design. 2) If evidence of the original design is missing, use a simplified interpretation of similar storefronts. If a storefront is altered, restoring it to the original design is preferred. cornice upper story windows midbelt cornice or belt course sign band transom display window recessed entry kickplate Typical commercial storefront components that should be preserved. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 39 C. Where an original storefront is missing, recon- struct it to match the original design. 1) The design should be substantiated by physical or pictorial evidence to avoid creating a misrepre- sentation of the building’s genuine heritage. D. Where an original storefront is missing, and no evidence of its character exists, an alternative de- sign is appropriate. 1) An alternative storefront design should continue to convey the characteristics of typical storefronts, including the transparent character of the display window, a recessed entry and cornices. Where an original storefront is missing, reconstruct it to match the original design. (Compare with the two photos of the same building below.) Using historic photographs can help in determining the original character. (Compare with below.) This rehabilitation preserves surviving details and reconstructs missing ones. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 40 E. Retain the kickplate as a decorative panel. 1) The kickplate, located below the display window, adds interesting detail to the streetscape and should be preserved. 2) If the original kickplate is covered with another material, consider exposing the original design. F. If the original kickplate is missing, develop a sympathetic replacement design. 1) Wood is an appropriate material for replacements on most styles. However, metal and masonry may also be considered when appropriately used with the building style. 2. Recessed Entries Many primary entrances to commercial buildings are recessed, providing a shaded area that helps to define doorways and to provide shelter to pedestrians. The repetition of recessed entries also provides a rhythm of shadows along the street, which helps establish a sense of scale. Entrance doors were also traditionally topped with transom windows that extend the verti- cal emphasis of these openings. These features should be preserved. A. Maintain recessed entryways. 1) Avoid adding a door that is flush with the side- walk, especially those that swing outward. B. Restore an historic recessed entry if it has been altered. 1) In some cases the historic door was not recessed. While retaining this position is preferred, it may be necessary to relocate the door to an inset posi- tion in order to comply with building codes. If the original kickplate is missing, develop a sympathetic replacement design. The replacement board-and-batten kickplate in the top photo is inappropriate; whereas, the simple painted wood design in the bottom photo is appropriate. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 41 Historically, as seen in this circa 1913 image, canopy supports were slim wood posts. Some had modest moldings and ornamental brackets. 3. Canopies Historically canopies were noteworthy features in downtown Truckee and their continued use in encour- aged. There were several types of canopies seen his- torically. A. Preserve a canopy when it is intact. 1) A metal or wood canopy is appropriate in many historic style buildings in Truckee. B. If a canopy is altered consider restoring to the original design. 1) Historic photographs of Truckee should be used when determining the original character of a canopy design. 2) If evidence of the original design is missing, use a simplified interpretation of similar canopies. C. Where an original canopy is missing, reconstruct it to match the original design. 1) The design should be substantiated by physical or pictorial evidence to avoid creating a misrepre- sentation of the building’s genuine heritage. D. Where an original canopy is missing, and no evi- dence of its character exists, an alternative design is appropriate. 1) An alternative canopy design should continue to convey the characteristics of typical canopies seen on buildings in the area. 2) Design of a new canopy should be compatible with the character of the structure. 3) A canopy should reflect the dimensions of the facade width. References: ☞ More information regarding the treatment of cornices and ornamentation can be found in Chapter 5: Preservation of Archi- tectural Features. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 42 4. Cornices Cornices are projecting ornamental moldings at the upper portion of a building wall or storefront. They are most apparent on late 19th century commercial structures, when several ornate, bracketed types were used. Mid-20th century buildings were, as a rule, less decorated and had simpler ornamentation. In each case the character of the cornice is an important feature that should be preserved. A. Preserve an original cornice. 1) See Chapter 5 for preservation procedures. When a building is missing its cornice, consider reconstruction or replacement with a new design. B. Reconstruct a missing cornice when historic evidence is available. 1 Replacement elements should match the original details, especially in overall size and profile. 2) Use historic photographs to determine design de- tails of the original cornice. C. A simplified interpretation may be considered for a replacement cornice if evidence of the original is missing. 1) Appropriate materials include stone, brick and stamped metal and fiberglass. Reconstruct a missing cornice when historic evidence is available. A simplified interpretation may be considered for a replacement cornice if evidence of the original is missing. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 43 5. Windows & Doors Windows and doors are some of the most important character-defining features of an historic structure. They give scale to a building and provide visual inter- est to the composition of individual facades. Distinct window and door designs, in fact, help define many historic building styles. Because window and door de- signs so significantly affect the character of an historic structure, their treatment is a very important consid- eration. Many early residential windows were vertically-pro- portioned. Another important feature is the number of “lights,” or panes, into which a window is divided. The design of surrounding window casings, the depth and profile of window sash elements and the materi- als of which they were constructed are also important features. The manner in which windows and doors are com- bined or arranged on a building face also may be dis- tinctly associated with a specific building style. All of these features are examples of elements in historic win- dow and door designs that should be preserved. A. Preserve the functional and decorative features of original windows and doors. 1) Repair frames and sash by patching, splicing or reinforcing. 2) Avoid the removal of historic windows and sash. 3) If replacement is necessary, replace with a similar design, to match the original. B. Avoid changing the position of historic open- ings. 1) This applies to all key facades of Essential and Contributing properties. 2) Windows and doors on the fronts of Supporting buildings should be preserved as well. 3) Avoid creating an additional opening or remov- ing existing ones on facades that are visible from the street. Wall Head Muntin Glazing Mullion Sash Stile Stops Jamb Casing Rail Sill Typical double-hung window components. Windows and doors in masonry buildings are often inset into relatively deep openings or they have surrounding casings and sash components which have a substantial dimension that cast shadows. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 44 C. Maintain original window and door proportions. 1) Altering the original size and shape is inappropri- ate. 2) Do not close down an original opening to accom- modate a smaller window. D. Restoring an original opening which has been altered over time is encouraged. 1) Consider reconstructing windows and doors that no longer exist in a primary facade. 2) Such reconstruction should occur only if it can be substantiated by physical or pictorial evidence. E. Maintain the historic subdivisions of window lights. 1) Replacing multiple panes with single pane or op- erable window with a fixed one is inappropriate. 2) Replacing true divided lights with snap-in muntins is also inappropriate. No! Yes! Maintain original window and door proportions. Preserve the functional and decorative features of original windows and doors. Maintain original window and door proportions. Maintain the historic subdivisions of window lights. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 45 F. Maintain the historic ratio of window openings to solid wall. 1) Significantly increasing the amount of glass will negatively affect the integrity of a structure. G. When replacing a window or door is necessary on an historic structure, match the original design as closely as possible. 1) Preserve the original casing, and use it with the replacement. 2) Use the same material (wood) as that used histori- cally. 3) Vinyl clad and aluminum windows are inappro- priate on Essential and Contributing properties. They only may be considered on secondary fa- cades of Supporting properties. 4) Match the number and size of divided lights and panels. 5) Glass in a window or door should be clear. Any type of tinting is inappropriate. H. A new window or door may be considered on a secondary facade only. 1) A new opening should be similar in location, size and type to those seen traditionally. 2) A general rule for a window opening is that the height should be twice the dimension of the width. 3) Windows should be simple in shape, arrangement and detail. I. Windows and doors should be finished with trim elements similar to those used traditionally. 1) This trim should have a dimension similar to that used historically. 2) Divided lights should be formed from smaller mul- lions integral to the window. Pop-in muntins and mullions are inappropriate. 6. Roofs The character of the roof is a major feature for an historic structure. The roof pitch, its materials, size and orientation are all distinct features that contrib- ute to the character of the building. Typical residen- tial roof shapes are gabled, hipped and shed. Gabled roofs are the most frequent. Most commercial build- ings have gently sloping, almost flat, roofs, but some have gable and shed roofs. The historic character of a roof should be preserved. A. Preserve the original roof form and its details. 1) Avoid altering the angle of the roof. 2) Place crickets or other snow guard devices in such a way that they do not alter the form of the roof as seen from the street. 3) Preserve decorative roof accessories such as crest- ing, ridgecaps and finials. Appropriate Inappropriate Preserve the historic ratio of window openings to solid wall. The shaded areas on the sketches represent the amount of glass on a wall surface. Historically, gable roof forms were the most typical for residential type structures. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 46 B. Preserve the original eave depth. 1) Shadows created by traditional overhangs contrib- ute to one's perception of a building's historic scale and therefore these overhangs should be pre- served. 2) Cutting back roof rafters and soffits or in other ways altering the traditional roof overhang is in- appropriate. 3) Boxing in exposed roof rafters is inappropriate. C. Preserve an historic roof by regular maintenance and cleaning. 1) Inspect the roof for breaks, or holes in the sur- face, and to check the flashing for open seams. 2) Watch for signs of accumulated dirt and retained moisture which can lead to damaged roof, gutter or downspout materials. D. If a portion of the historic roofing material is damaged, replace it in-kind. 1) Avoid removing historic roofing materials that are in good condition. 2) If replacing some shingles is necessary, match the color, material and pattern of the original as closely as possible. E. For an entirely new replacement, the roof ma- terials should appear similar to those used histori- cally. 1) A replacement roof material should be in keep- ing with the character of the architectural style of the historic structure. 2) Composite shingles and metal may be considered as alternatives to wood shingles. 3) Roof materials should be earth tones and have a matte, non-reflective finish. F. If it is to be used, a metal roof should be applied and detailed in a manner that is compatible with the historic character of the building and does not detract from its appearance. 1) Metal roof materials should be earth tones and have a matte, non-reflective finish. 2) Seams should be of a low profile. 3) The edges of the roof should be finished similar to that seen traditionally. The edges of historic standing seam metal roofs were simply bent down- ward at the edges of the roof with a very slight overhang. Gabled Hipped Cross-Gabled Mansard Shed Flat Gabled w/ False Front Typical roof shapes seen throughout downtown Truckee. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 47 G. Water from gutters and downspouts should drain away properly. 1) A downspout should empty onto a metal or con- crete splashblock that slopes downward and away from the building. H. Minimize the visual impacts of skylights and other rooftop devices. 1) Locating a skylight or a solar panel on a front roof plane should be avoided. 2) Skylights and solar panels should not be installed in a manner that will interrupt the plane of the historic roof. They should be lower than the ridgeline. 3) Flat skylights that are flush with the roof plane may be considered on the rear and sides of the roof. Bubbled or domed skylights are not appro- priate. 7. Porches Porches differ in height, scale, location, materials and articulation. Some are simple one-story structures, while others may be complex with elaborate details and finishes. These elements often correspond to the architectural style of the house and therefore the building's design character should be considered be- fore any major rehabilitation work is begun. Historic porches should be preserved and they should receive sensitive treatment during exterior rehabilitation. Avoid enclosing a front porch. Compare the character of the enclosed porch on the left to that of an original porch on the home to the right. Bubbled or domed skylights are not appropriate. A. Preserve an original porch. 1) Replace missing posts and railings where neces- sary, with wood ones (unless a different material is documented as being a part of the historic char- acter). 2) Match the original proportions and the spacing of balusters in the railing. 3) Avoid using wrought iron posts and railings. References: ☞ More information regarding roof materials can be found in Chapter 6: Design Guidelines for Historic Building Materials. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 48 B. Maintain the open, transparent character of a porch. 1) When a porch must be enclosed, glass should be used and detailed in a manner that retains the historic sense of openness. 2) Enclosing a porch with opaque materials that de- stroy the openness and transparency of a porch is inappropriate. When a porch must be enclosed, glass should be used and detailed in a manner that retains the historic sense of openness. C. If a porch is missing, consider reconstructing it to match the form and detail of the original. 1) Use materials similar to the original. 2) Avoid decorative elements that are not known to have been used on the building. 8. Building Foundations The foundation and other structural elements of an historic resource is essential to the stability and integ- rity of a building. Sometimes well-meaning actions can result in foundation damage or weakening, but lack of good maintenance practice is probably the biggest problem. More than anything else, water is the most damaging destructive agent a foundation must face. Many of Truckee's historic houses and sheds were built on stone foundations. While some of these have de- teriorated and must be replaced, many are simply de- teriorated and in need of shoring to make them struc- turally sound again. When replacement is necessary, however, a new foundation should be consistent with the original. It is a common misconception in preservation projects that original building elements can be removed and replaced with new replica elements, and then call it rehabilitation. This is an inappropriate approach. Any time original building materials or features are removed from an historic resource, the overall integrity of the structure is diminished. Again, as previously discussed in Chapter 4: Preservation Principles, only after all other rehabilitation or restoration efforts have failed should an original building feature be replaced with one that is the same or similar in character. And then only that portion that is beyond repair should be re- placed. A. Preserve original foundation walls and structural elements. 1) Retain a substantial portion of the original struc- tural elements including structural supports and exterior foundation wall. 2) Replace only those portions that are deteriorated beyond repair. Any replacement materials should match the original in color, texture, size and fin- ish. If a porch is missing, consider reconstructing it to match the form and detail of the original. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 49 B. When replacing a foundation wall, design it to be compatible with that seen on similar historic buildings. 1) The form, materials and detailing of a founda- tion wall should be similar to the original founda- tion and of nearby historic buildings. Match the mortar in strength, detail, composition and color. 2) New foundation walls should not increase the height of the structure to the degree that the his- toric character or alignment of building fronts are compromised. 3) If it is necessary to install windows and window wells in the foundation for egress, avoid placing them on the street facade, especially on historic structures. 9. Chimneys and Stovepipes Chimneys and stovepipes are integral parts of most residential construction in Truckee. Any major dete- rioration of a chimney compromises its purpose, with many implications for the comfort and safety of the building’s inhabitants. The proper maintenance and repair of historic chimneys is therefore important. A. An historic chimney should not be removed. 1) A chimney is an important exterior design ele- ment. 2) Re-line and repair an historic chimney rather than replace it, when feasible, or maintain it as a non- functioning feature if necessary. B. If replacement is absolutely necessary, a chim- ney should be replaced in the historic style. 1) The chimney shape should match that of the his- toric one being replaced. 2) The brick laying pattern and mortar should match that of the historic chimney being replaced. C. A chimney should be regularly checked for de- terioration. 1) Chimneys are subject to the same forces of dete- rioration as all other character-defining features. However, because of their location, chimney prob- lems are more often neglected. 2) Annual chimney inspections should be conducted for leaning, cracking, deteriorated pointing or brickwork, deteriorated flashing, deteriorated flue liner, build-up of surface soot and intrusions such as nests or debris. D. A stovepipe, on any building, should have a matte, non-metallic dark finish. Design Guidelines for Individual Building Components Chapter 6 Page 50 Design Guidelines for Historic Building Materials Chapter 7 Page 51 CHAPTER 7 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR HISTORIC BUILDING MATERIALS Introduction This chapter presents design guidelines for the treat- ment of historic building materials. The design guide- lines are organized into relevant design topics, which each include individual policies and design guidelines. These often indicate how they apply to particular building rating categories, either “Essential,” “Contrib- uting” or “Supporting” structures. Wood siding and brick were the typical primary build- ing materials used throughout Truckee. Wood siding occurred in a variety of forms but painted, horizontal lap siding was the most popular for residences as well as many other building types. Brick was primarily used for commercial structures. In each case, the distinct properties of the building material, including the scale of the material unit, its texture and finish, contribute to the historic character of a building and should be preserved. The best way to preserve historic building materials is through well-planned maintenance. Wood surfaces should be protected with a good application of paint. In some cases, however, historic building materials may be deteriorated. When this occurs, repairing the ma- terial, rather than replacing it, is preferred. Frequently, damaged materials can be patched or consolidated using special bonding agents. Topics Discussed in this Chapter: 1. Wood and Siding 2. Paint 3. Masonry 4 Metals 5. Replacement Building Materials 6. Roof materials In other situations, some portion of the material may be beyond repair. In such cases, consider replacement in-kind. The new material should match the original in appearance. If wood siding had been used histori- cally, for example, the replacement also should be wood. It is important that the extent of replacement materi- als be minimized, because the original materials con- tribute to the authenticity of the property as an his- toric resource. Even when the replacement material exactly matches that of the original, the integrity of an historic building is to some extent compromised when extensive amounts are removed. This is because the original material exhibits a record of the labor and craftsmanship of an earlier time and this is lost when it is replaced. References: ☞ Also consult The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings. ☞ Also consult The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Illustrated Guidelines for Preserving, Rehabilitating, Restoring, and Reconstructing Historic Buildings. Design Guidelines for Historic Building Materials Chapter 7 Page 52 It is also important to recognize that all materials weather over time and that a scarred finish does not represent an inferior material, but simply reflects the age of the building. Preserving original materials that show signs of wear is therefore preferred to their re- placement. Rather than replace original siding, some property owners consider covering it. Aluminum and vinyl are examples that are often discussed. However, using any material, either synthetic or conventional, to cover historic materials is inappropriate. Doing so would ob- scure the original character and change the dimen- sions of walls, which are particularly noticeable around door and window openings. The extra layer may in fact cause or hide further decay. Preserve original building materials and, when they must be replaced, do so in-kind. Wood shingles were used frequently in Truckee. Design Guidelines for Historic Building Materials Chapter 7 Page 53 1. Wood and Siding To preserve wood, maintain its painted finish. While lap siding is most prevalent on some buildings, log or board and batten may have been used. This also should be preserved in a manner that conveys its historic char- acter. A. Preserve original siding. 1) Avoid removing siding that is in good condition or that can be repaired in place. 2) Remove only siding which is deteriorated and must be replaced. 3) If portions of wood siding must be replaced, be sure to match the style and lap dimensions of the original. B. Protect wood features from deterioration. 1) Provide proper drainage and ventilation to mini- mize decay. 2) Maintain protective coatings to retard drying and ultraviolet damage. If the building was painted his- torically, it should remain painted, including all trim. C. Repair wood features by patching, piecing-in, consolidating or otherwise reinforcing the wood. 1) Avoid the removal of damaged wood that can be repaired. D. Use technical procedures that preserve, clean, or repair historic materials and finishes. 1) Abrasive methods such as sandblasting are not appropriate. 2) A firm experienced in the cleaning of historic buildings should be hired to advise on the best, lowest impact method of cleaning. 3) Note that early paint layers may be lead-based, in which case, special procedures are required for its treatment. Repair wood features by patching or piecing-in new wood elements that match the original. Protect wood features from deterioration. If the building was painted historically, it should remain painted, including all trim. Design Guidelines for Historic Building Materials Chapter 7 Page 54 E. Remove later covering materials that have not achieved historic significance. 1) If original materials are presently covered, con- sider exposing them. For example, asphalt siding that covers original wood siding should be re- moved. Some covering materials may contain hazardous materials such as asbestos. It is appro- priate to remove these materials. Confer with the Town Chief Building Official for more informa- tion concerning the removal of these materials. 2) Once the non-historic siding is removed, repair the original, underlying material. F. Original building materials should not be cov- ered. 1) Vinyl, aluminum, imitation brick, stucco or other composite materials are inappropriate on historic structures. 2) If a property already has a non-historic building material covering the original, it is not appropri- ate to add another layer of new material, which would further obscure the original. 2. Paint Buildings that were clad with lap siding were usually painted to protect the wood. Only sheds or other ac- cessory buildings were left unfinished. The range of paint colors available historically was limited. Using traditional color schemes is preferred. A. Always prepare a good substrate for painting. 1) Prior to painting, remove damaged or deteriorated paint only to the next intact layer, using the gen- tlest method possible. Always prepare a good substrate when repainting an historic structure. Remove later covering materials that have not achieved historic significance. Design Guidelines for Historic Building Materials Chapter 7 Page 55 B. Use compatible paints. 1) Some latex paints will not bond well to earlier oil-based paints without a primer coat. C. Using the historic color scheme is encouraged. 1) If an historic scheme is not to be used, then con- sider the following: • Generally, one muted color is used as a back- ground, which unifies the composition. 3. Masonry Some buildings in the commercial area were built of brick or stone. This masonry construction should be preserved in its original condition. A. Preserve masonry features that define the over- all historic character of the building. 1) Examples are walls, cornices, pediments, steps, • One or two colors are usually used for accent, to highlight details and trim. chimneys and foundations. 2) Avoid rebuilding a major portion of an exterior • A single color scheme should be used for the entire exterior so upper and lower floors and sub- ordinate wings of buildings are seen as components of a single structure. masonry wall that could be repaired. Reconstruc- tion may result in a loss of integrity. B. Preserve the original mortar joint and masonry unit size, the tooling and bonding patterns, coatings and color. 1) Original mortar, in good condition, should be preserved in place. Preserve masonry features that define the overall historic character of the building. Prior to painting, remove damaged or deteriorated paint only to the next intact layer, using the gentlest method possible. Design Guidelines for Historic Building Materials Chapter 7 Page 56 C. Re-point mortar joints where there is evidence of deterioration. 1) Duplicate the old mortar in strength, composi- tion, color, texture, joint width and profile. 2) Mortar joints should be cleared with hand tools. Using electric saws and hammers to remove mor- tar can seriously damage the adjacent brick or stone. 3) Avoid using mortar with a high Portland cement content, because it will be substantially harder than the brick and does not allow for expansion and contraction. D. Brick or stone that was not painted historically should not be painted. 1) Painting masonry walls can seal in moisture al- ready in the masonry, thereby not allowing it to breathe and causing extensive damage over the years. E. Protect masonry from water deterioration. 1) Provide proper drainage so that water does not stand on flat, horizontal surfaces or accumulate in decorative features. 2) Provide positive drainage away from foundations to minimize rising moisture. Abrasive cleaning methods, such as sand blasting, will not be allowed for brick structures. F. Clean masonry with the gentlest methods pos- sible. 1) Test cleaning procedures in sample patches first. 2) Low pressure water and detergent cleaning, using bristle brushes, is encouraged. 3) Abrasive cleaning methods, such as sand blast- ing, will not be allowed. They may remove the water-protective outer layer of the brick and thereby accelerate deterioration. Avoid using mortar with a high Portland cement content, because it will be substantially harder than the brick and does not allow for expanding and contracting. Design Guidelines for Historic Building Materials Chapter 7 Page 57 4. Metals Metals were used for a variety of applications includ- ing columns, roofing, and decorative features. Metal applications should be maintained where they exist. A. Preserve architectural metal features that con- tribute to the overall historic character of the build- ing. 1) Provide proper drainage to minimize water reten- tion. 2) Maintain protective coatings, such as paint, on exposed metals. B. Repair metal features by patching, splicing or otherwise reinforcing the original metal whenever possible. 1) The new metal should be compatible with the original. C. Use the gentlest cleaning method possible when removing deteriorated paint or rust from metal sur- faces. 1) Harsh, abrasive cleaning methods should be avoided. 5. Replacement Building Materials In some cases, the original material must be replaced. Using the same as the original is preferred, but an al- ternative may be considered. In either case, the new material should convey characteristics similar to the original. A. Replacement building materials should appear similar to those used historically. 1) The replacement material(s) should match the original material in scale, finish and composition. 2) If the original material is wood clapboard, for ex- ample, then the replacement material should be wood as well. It should match the original in size, the amount of exposed lap and in finish. 3) Replace only the amount needed. If a few boards are damaged beyond repair, then only they should be replaced, not the entire wall. 4) Materials such as aluminum and vinyl are inap- propriate as substitute materials. Preserve architectural metal features that contribute to the overall historic character of the building. Replacement materials should be applied in a manner similar to that used historically. Design Guidelines for Historic Building Materials Chapter 7 Page 58 B. Exterior wood finishes should appear similar to those used historically. 1) Maintain protective coatings of paint on exterior wood siding. C. Masonry should appear similar to that used his- torically. 1) Masonry unit sizes should be similar to the origi- nal. 2) The texture and color of the brick also should be similar. 6. Roof Materials Roof materials are major elements in a street scene and contribute to the character of individual building styles. However, they are susceptible to deterioration, and their replacement may become necessary in time. Replacement materials should be applied in a manner similar to that seen historically and chosen based on its compatible appearance to the structure and sur- rounding historic properties. A. Preserve original roof materials. 1) Avoid removing roof material that is in good con- dition. 2) It is especially important to preserve historic ma- terials, or replace them with similar materials when necessary. 3) Do not cover historic roof materials. Roof materials are major elements in a street scene and contribute to the character of individual building styles. Do not cover historic roof material with another material. Design Guidelines for Historic Building Materials Chapter 7 Page 59 B. Roofing replacement materials should convey a size and texture similar to those used tradition- ally. 1) Where replacement is necessary, use materials similar to that seen historically. 2) The roof materials should be earth toned and have a matte, non-reflective finish. 3) Composition shingles may be considered, if they are colored in earth tones. 4) Sawn wood shingles may be considered for most building types. Rustic wood shakes are inappro- priate. 5) Corrugated metal may also be appropriate. Sawn wood shingle Rustic wood shake C. If they are to be used, metal roofs should be ap- plied and detailed in a manner that does not dis- tract from the historic appearance of the building. 1) Metal roof material should be earth toned and have a matte, non-reflective finish. 2) Seams should have a thin profile. Sawn wood shingles may be considered for most building types. Rustic wood shakes are inappropriate. A metal roof material should have a matte, non-reflective finish. The glare seen from this roof is inappropriate. A metal roof material should be earth toned and have a matte, non- reflective finish. Design Guidelines for Historic Building Materials Chapter 7 Page 60 Design Guidelines for Adaptive Reuse Chapter 8 Page 61 CHAPTER 8 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR ADAPTIVE REUSE Introduction When adapting an historic structure to a new use, all of the other standards and guidelines for treatment of historic properties continue to apply. This chapter provides special direction on how those preservation principles relate when changing uses. Be aware that a change in use may trigger compliance with other building and fire codes that could affect the historic character of a property. For example, changing a house to a commercial use may require fire separations that need special care in order to preserve the historic character. In a similar manner, complying with accessibility laws may require some changes. In such situations, seek alternative design solutions that will minimize the loss of historic building fabric and will avoid altering the historic character of the prop- erty. A. When adapting an historic structure to a new use, respect its historic character. 1) For example, when converting a residence to com- mercial use, maintain the overall residential char- acter of the property. 2) This includes preservation of the key features of the building itself, as well as landscape and site design elements. When adapting an historic structure to a new use, respect its historic character. References: Design Guidelines for Adaptive Reuse Chapter 8 Page 62 B. Seek a use that is compatible with the historic character of the property. 1) A use that is closely related to the original use is preferred. As an example, converting a residence to professional offices is relatively easy because exterior features can be maintained and even the interior floor plan is usually adaptable to an of- fice layout. 2) A use that preserves the historic site design is also preferred. This may include the character of a front yard that is associated with an historic house. C. Minimize the impacts of complying with fire separation requirements. 1) Seek alternative measures for complying that would preserve historic siding and structural sys- tems. For example, consider using an external fire sprinkling system rather than replacing historic wood siding. D. Design accessibility improvements in a manner that will preserve the historic character of the prop- erty. 1) Locate an access ramp, for example, in a way that preserves key features. E. Maintain the historic character of the manner in which a building orients to the street. 1) For example, if an historic house is to be con- verted, preserve the historic relationship of a front yard with a walkway and stairs that lead to a front porch. F. When adapting historic landscapes and yards to new uses, also maintain the historic character. 1) Preserve the general character of a modest, infor- mal front yard with walkway, for example, rather than creating an overly decorative courtyard. 2) Develop a lighting design that is compatible with the historic character as well. G. Minimize the visual impacts of parking areas. 1) Parking in a front yard is inappropriate. 2) See the guidelines in Chapter 10. Seek a use that is compatible with the historic character of the property. References: ☞ See also the design guidelines for Handicap Accessibility in Chapter 10: Design Guidelines for Site Features. ☞ See also the design guidelines for Residential Parking, Garages & Driveways in Chapter 10: Design Guidelines for Site Features. Design Guidelines fro Additions Chapter 9 Page 63 CHAPTER 9 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR ADDITIONS Introduction This chapter presents design policies and guidelines for the treatment of additions to historic properties, including existing additions, as well as the design of new ones. Constructing additions is part of the design tradition of Truckee, even from its earliest history. These often reflected needs for additional space or a change in use. An early addition typically used forms and materials that were similar to the main building and it remained subordinate in scale and character. The height of the addition was usually positioned below that of the main structure and it was often located to the side or rear, such that the primary facade remained predominate. In some cases, an owner simply added a dormer to an existing roof, creating more usable space without in- creasing the footprint of the structure. This tradition of adding on to buildings is anticipated to continue and these early principles should be continued. Greater flexibility in designing an addition is available to prop- erties rated as “supporting”. Topics Discussed in this Chapter: 1. Existing Additions 2. New Additions 3. Roof and Dormer Additions References: ☞ Also consult The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings, Standards 9 and 10. Design Guidelines for Additions Chapter 9 Page 64 1. Existing Additions An early addition to a building may be evidence of the history of the structure, its inhabitants and its neighborhood. This may have developed significance in its own right, and should be respected. A. Preserve an older addition that has achieved historic significance in its own right. 1) For example, a porch or a kitchen wing may have been added to the original building early in its his- tory. Such an addition is usually similar in char- acter to the original building in terms of materi- als, finishes and design. B. A more recent addition that is not historically significant may be removed. 1) For example, a new room may have replaced a front porch within the last several decades. Such an addition has not achieved historic significance, and removing and restoring the original facade is preferred. 2. New Additions When planning an addition consider the effect it will have on the historic building itself. The new work should be recognized as a product of its own time and yet it should be visually compatible with the original, and the loss of the historic fabric should be minimized as well. A design for a new addition that would create an appearance inconsistent with the historic charac- ter of the building is inappropriate. A. Design an addition such that it will not obscure, alter or destroy the character of the original build- ing. 1) An addition that seeks to imply an earlier or later period than that of the building is inappropriate. 2) An addition that conveys an inaccurate variation on the historic style is inappropriate. For example, introducing very ornate “Victorian” details is in- appropriate on the simple cottages of Truckee. 3) An addition should not obscure or damage char- acter-defining features (such as windows, doors, porches, brackets or roof lines). Addition is subordinate to main building form Design an addition such that it will not obscure, alter or destroy the character of the original building. Design Guidelines fro Additions Chapter 9 Page 65 B. An addition should be visually subordinate to the main building. This is especially important for buildings rated “Essential” and “Contributing.” 1) An addition should respect the proportions, mass- ing and siting of the historic building. 2) The form and detailing of an addition should be compatible with the historic building. Simpler details on an addition can help distinguish it from the original structure. 3) Set an addition back from the primary facade in order to allow the original proportions, form and overall character of the historic building to remain prominent. 4) If an addition would be taller than the main build- ing, set it back substantially from primary charac- ter-defining facades. 5) A small “connector” linking the historic building and the addition may be considered. C. A substantial addition should be distinguishable from the historic building so it can be understood as a more recent change. 1) This can be accomplished with a jog in the wall planes, or by using a cornerboard to define the connection, or a subtle change in material or a subtle differentiation between historic and more current styles. D. The materials of an addition should be compat- ible with those of the primary structure. 1) Matching the historic material is an appropriate approach, although new materials also may be considered. E. Windows in an addition that are visible from the public way should be compatible with those of the historic structure. A small “connector” linking the historic building (left) and the addition (right) may be considered. As seen from the street (top photo) the addition to the rear of this structure is not visible. This is encouraged. Design Guidelines for Additions Chapter 9 Page 66 3. Roof and Dormer Additions Dormers had limited use in Truckee, but they were sometimes employed. Most dormers had vertical em- phasis, and only one or two were used on a side of a building. A roof or dormer addition should be designed in a manner that minimizes damage to historic build- ing fabric, does not alter the perceived character from the street and is in keeping with the original structure. A. A roof addition should be in character with the style of the primary structure. 1) The size of a roof addition, including dormers, should be kept to a minimum and should be set back from the primary facade so that the original roof line and form is perceived from the street. 2) Gabled dormers are appropriate for most archi- tectural styles, and hipped dormers may be ap- propriate for some architectural styles. B. A new dormer should remain subordinate to the historic roof in size and character. 1) A new dormer should be lower than the primary ridge line and set in from the eave. 2) Greater flexibility may be considered for build- ings rated “Supporting.” A new dormer should be constructed in a manner similar to those seen historically. A roof addition should be in character with the style of the primary structure. Gabled dormers (left) are appropriate for most architectural styles, and hipped dormers (right) are appropriate for many architectural styles. A new dormer should remain subordinate to the historic roof in size and character. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 67 CHAPTER 10 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR SITE FEATURES This chapter presents design guidelines for the treat- ment of site features. These include landscape ele- ments as well as parking and service areas. Many of the design principles set forth in this chapter address considerations of buffering incompatible or visually obtrusive features and coordinating, or linking desired circulation systems. Others promote design that would be compatible with historic landscape traditions, while also accommodating changing uses and needs. Topics Discussed in this Chapter: 1. Views 2. Landscape & Plant Materials 3. Site Retaining Walls 4. Cut-and-Fill 5. Fences 6. Building & Site Lighting 7. Residential Parking, Garages & Driveways 8. Public & Commercial Parking 9. Historic Accessory Structures 10. New Accessory Structures 11. Service Areas 12. Utilities 13. Snow Shedding 14. Accessibility References: ☞ See also Chapters 18.24, 18.30, 18.40, 18.42, 18.48, 18.50, 18.54 and 18.56 of the Truckee Municipal Code. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 68 1. Views Views to natural and historic features abound in Truckee and contribute to its unique setting. These view corridors should be respected. Maintaining views to the Truckee River from downtown is especially im- portant. A. Preserve views to significant features from the public way. 1) Site plans for new construction should include consideration of retaining view opportunities for future projects. 2) Landscaping is encouraged and, in some situa- tions, may be required in order to mitigate other visual impacts. Such landscaping, when mature, should maintain existing views and solar access corridors. 3) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.24.040(B)(2) which provides more guid- ance on locating buildings to preserve views, veg- etation and existing land forms. YES! View maintained NO! View blocked Sloped roofs allow views along the side yard of a property. Such design elements are encouraged as methods of preserving view corridors. 2. Landscaping & Plant Materials Traditionally, a simple palette of plant materials ap- peared in Truckee, in response both to the limited availability of varieties and to the restricted range of plants that would grow successfully in Truckee’s cli- mate. While some variety in the landscaping is antici- pated on individual properties, the overall character should be in keeping with that seen historically. Where historic plantings survive, they should be preserved to the extent feasible. Plant materials should be used to create continuity among buildings, especially in front yards and along the street edge. Plants should be adapted to the Truckee climate while also being compatible with the historic context. Consideration also should be given to the future care and maintenance requirements of these materials. A. Preserve historic landscape features. 1) Existing on-site vegetation should be retained whenever possible and new landscaping should respect and incorporate existing landscape ele- ments. 2) When trees must be removed, replace them with comparable plantings on the site. 3) Existing historic landscape features, such as fences, sidewalks and trees, should be preserved, and should be protected during construction. ) Replacement plant materials should be similar in size or equivalent massing to the plants removed (e.g., a cluster of smaller new trees may be used to establish a massing similar to one large original tree). 5) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.30.080(A) which helps ensure the preser- vation of natural vegetation within the Town. B. Existing, native landscaping should be incorpo- rated into the final landscape. 1) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.40.040(A)(3) which establishes a credit towards minimum landscape requirements when native plants are retained. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 69 s t r ee t C. In new landscape designs, use plant materials that are compatible with the historic context of Truckee. 1) Landscaping schemes that are simple and subdued in character are encouraged. 2) Use plant materials in quantities and sizes that will have a meaningful impact in the early years of a project. 3) Hardy plant materials should be used to accent buildings, pedestrian areas, parking facilities and to provide shade. 4) Placement of plant materials should be used to establish a balanced relationship to buildings on and off site. D. Use plant materials that are adapted to the Truckee climate. 1) Landscape designs should reflect a variety of de- ciduous and evergreen trees, shrubs, perennials and ground covers. 2) Plant materials should be selected for their struc- ture, texture, color, ultimate growth characteris- tics and sense of unity with their surroundings. 3) A balance ratio of evergreen and deciduous plants should be planted. 4) Plant varieties that will survive the cold and snow loads should be used. 5) Shrubs, annuals and native plants in planter boxes (both fixed and free-standing) that are framed in natural wood or stone are encouraged. 6) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.42.080 for recommended plant materials. E. When plant materials are used for screening they should be designed to function year-round. 1) When installed, these materials should be of a suf- ficient size and number to accomplish a screening effect year-round. For example, shrubs may be se- lected with a branch structure that will filter views in winter time, or mix evergreens with deciduous plants for a year-round effect. 2) Planting screens should include trees and shrubs. Ground covers and flowering perennials alone will not provide sufficient screening. 3) Plants should separate parking areas from build- ings, walkways and rights-of-way. 4) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.30.110 which provides more information for screening and buffers between adjacent uses. street Maintain a landscaped edge along the edge of a site. This will help to define the road edge and provide a separation between pedestrian and vehicular areas and neighboring properties. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 70 3. Site Retaining Walls Stone retaining walls are used in some areas where steep slopes occur. Many of these have historic sig- nificance and should be preserved. A. Preserve an original retaining wall. 1) Replace only those portions that are deteriorated beyond repair. Any replacement materials should match the original in color, texture, size and fin- ish. 2) Do not introduce mortar into dry-stack retaining walls. 3) Painting an historic masonry retaining wall, or covering it with stucco or other cementious coat- ings, is not appropriate. B. Maintain the historic height, form and detail- ing of a retaining wall. 1) Increasing the height of a wall to create a privacy screen is inappropriate. 2) If additional screening is necessary, add planting materials or a fence. C. Reduce water pressure on a retaining wall by improving drainage behind it. 1) Also provide drains in the wall to allow moisture to pass through it. D. For a new retaining wall, use materials similar to those seen historically. 1) Natural rock or stone should be used for a new retaining wall. 2) Conventional unfinished concrete block is inap- propriate. 3) Architectural block, with special texturing or color may be considered where it can be demonstrated that the result will appear to be in character with the area. E. Minimize the perceived scale and mass of a new retaining wall. 1) Where a wall is necessary, reflect the scale of tra- ditional development and limit the width and height of a wall to the minimum necessary. 2) A wall that is less than four feet is encouraged. 3) Where the overall retaining height must be greater than four feet, use a series of terraces with short walls to maintain the traditional sense of a hill- side where feasible. 4) Also consider varying the setback of individual wall to minimize the perceived overall width of a long wall. 5) Also consider varying the masonry pattern to pro- vide variety in large walls. 6) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.30.120(F)(6) which provides more detail about retaining wall heights in conjunction with other Town setback requirements. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 71 4. Cut-and-Fill Site development may require cutting new driveways into relatively steep slopes along with substantial ex- cavations for foundations. While basic engineering concerns are major issues in these cases, the visual im- pacts of these cuts can be significant. To the greatest extent possible, cutting-and-filling of sloping areas should be avoided but, where it must occur, the visual impacts should be minimized. A. Minimize cut-and-fill excavation that would al- ter the perceived natural topography of the hillside. 1) Use earth berms, rock forms or stone retaining walls to minimize visual impacts of cuts. Hedges and fences may also be appropriate in some loca- tions. 2) Simple rock walls that use native stone may be considered. Exposed gabions, large, continuous surfaces of smooth, raw concrete and related struc- tures are inappropriate. 3) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.30.080 which helps prevent premature grading of the existing terrain. 5. Fences When used historically, fences were simple wood picket or metal. These were relatively low in height and had a “transparent” character, allowing views into yards and providing interest to pedestrians. A few his- toric fences survive and should be preserved. New fences should be compatible with the historic setting as well. A. Preserve an original fence. 1) Replace only those portions that are deteriorated. 2) Typical historic fence types include: wood picket, wrought iron and twisted wire. 3) An historic wood fence should be protected against the weather with a painted finish. B. A new fence should be similar in character to those seen historically. 1) A fence that defines a front yard is usually low to the ground and “transparent” in nature. A fence should not exceed four feet in height. 2) Solid, “stockade” fences do not allow views into front yards and are inappropriate. 3) A new wood fence should be painted. 4) Chain link, concrete block, unfaced concrete, plas- tic, fiberglass, plywood, slatted “snow” fences and mesh “construction” fences are inappropriate. 5) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.30.070(C) for fence height limitations that apply to residential zoning districts. Use earth berms, rock forms or stone retaining walls to minimize visual impacts of cuts. Hedges and fences may also be appropriate in some locations. Historically, fences were low and had a degree of transparency. Original fences should be preserved and new ones should be designed to be in character. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 72 6. Building & Site Lighting Exterior lighting should be a subordinate element, so that the stars in the night sky are visible. Tradition- ally, exterior lights were simple in character. Most used incandescent lamps. These were relatively low in in- tensity and were shielded with simple shade devices. This tradition should be continued. A. Exterior building lights should be functional and be in harmony with surrounding buildings. 1) Lights should not attract unnecessary attention to any one building. 2) External light fixtures should be simple in design and compatible with and complementary to the style of the building. They may also be contem- porary, compatible designs. 3) Traditional materials such as baked enamel or porcelain, oxidized copper and cast iron should be used. 4) Steel, anodized aluminum or wood should be used for light standards. 5) Individual building lights should be secondary; whereas, the lighting of buildings should not de- tract from the primary lighting system which pro- vides street and walkway illumination. 6) Lighting chaos and energy waste should be avoided. B. Minimize the visual impacts of site and archi- tectural lighting. 1) Indirect lighting should be used whenever possible so that the light source is hidden from direct view. 2) Unshielded, high intensity light sources and those that direct light upward are inappropriate. 3) Shield lighting that is associated with service ar- eas and parking lots. 4) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.30.060(D) for exterior lighting shielding 7. Residential Parking, Garages & Driveways Although not a part of the early street scene of Truckee, the automobile and its associated storage is a part of contemporary life. In all cases, the visual im- pacts of parking—which includes driveways, garages and garage doors—should be minimized. On-site park- ing should be subordinate to other uses and the front yards should not appear to be a parking area. A. Avoid parking in the front yard. 1) Traditionally, front yards were not used as paved parking lots, and instead, yards provided views to facades and open space. 2) A parking pad located in the front of a residence is inappropriate. B. A parking area for a commercial use in a resi- dential setting should be located to the side or rear of a lot, and detached from the main structure. C. A garage should not dominate the street scene. 1) A garage should be subordinate to the primary structure on the site. requirements. When parking in the front yard can not be avoided, it should be subordinate to other uses. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 73 D. A detached garage is preferred. 1) In order to minimize the impact of a garage on the street scene, locate it to the rear of the build- ing. Setting a garage back substantially from the primary building front, may also be considered. 2) This will help reduce the perceived mass of the overall development. 3) The material and detailing of a detached garage should be utilitarian, to be compatible with other historic accessory structures. 4) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.48.080(J) for the dimensional requirements of a residential garage. E. When a garage must be attached, the percent- age of building front allocated to it should be mini- mized. 1) A garage door should be designed to minimize the apparent width of the opening. Use materials on the door that are similar to that of wall surface of the primary structure. This will make it read as an integral part of the structure. Wood clad ga- rage doors are preferred. 2) When necessary, an attached garage should be de- tailed as part of the primary building. F. Use paving materials that will minimize the impact a driveway will have on a streetscape. 1) Exposed aggregate concrete, gravel or chip and seal are appropriate paving materials. 2) Consider providing only ribbon strips of paving. This will reduce visual impacts—as well as allow more drainage through soils. 3) Plain asphalt or black top is not allowed. 4) Use materials that are not impervious to water and will not create runoff into the street or onto adjacent properties. 5) Consider sharing a single drive and curb cut where multiple driveways are needed. 6) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.48.080 for specific requirements related to driveways and site access. Use materials on the door that are similar to that of wall surface of the primary structure. This will make it read as an integral part of the structure. Wood clad garage doors are preferred. 8. Public & Commercial Parking Public parking lots were not a part of Truckee’s early history either. The visual impacts of features associ- ated with storage of automobiles, including driveways, garages and parking lots should be minimized. Care should also be taken to provide pedestrian circulation that is separate from, and does not conflict with, ve- hicular circulation. A. Screen a parking area from view from the street. 1) Parking and circulation areas should be screened from public streets by combinations of low walls, berms, plant materials and changes in grade. 2) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.50.050 which provides more guidance for parking lot design, including circulation and land- scaping. 3) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.40.040 which provides landscaping re- quirements for parking lot perimeters and interi- ors, as well as for buffers. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 74 street parking Where a parking lot abuts a public sidewalk, provide a buffer. Where a parking lot abuts a public sidewalk, provide a visual buffer. This may be a landscaped strip or planter. Use a combination of trees and shrubs to create a landscape buffer. B. Design a parking area to be accessed from the rear of a site, rather than from the street. 1) Parking placed along the side or rear of a site, or within a complex of buildings, allows project ar- chitecture and the beauty of the landscaped open space to take precedence. 2) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.48.080 for site access requirements. 3) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.50 for more guidance to parking lot design. C..... Minimize the visual impact that large areas of parking create. 1) Minimize the surface area of paving and consider using materials that blend with the natural colors and textures of the region. Options to consider are: modular pavers, gravel and grasscrete. 2) Large expanses of black-top or concrete are inap- propriate. 3) When large parking lots are necessary, increase landscaping to screen the lot, and consider divid- ing the lot into smaller components. Provide land- scaped “islands” in the interiors of lots. These may double as snow storage zones in winter months. 4) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.40.040 which provides landscaping re- quirements for parking lot interiors. 5) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.450 for parking lot design guidance. D. On a sloped site, terrace parking areas to follow the existing topography. 1) Orient parking areas to fit within the topography. Placing a driving lane parallel to a site contour will reduce the need for cut-and-fill. 2) Use landscaping in terraced areas between park- ing lots. On a sloped site, terrace parking areas to follow the existing topography. Where a parking lot shares a site with a building, place the parking at the rear of the site or beside the building. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 75 9. Historic Accessory Structures Accessory structures are a part of the design traditions of downtown Truckee. They include garages, carriage houses, barns and sheds. Because accessory structures help interpret how an entire lot was used historically, their preservation is strongly encouraged. A. If an existing accessory structure has historic sig- nificance, then its preservation is encouraged. 1) When treating an historic accessory building, re- spect its character-defining features such as its primary facade and roof materials, roof form, win- dows, doors and architectural details. 2) Avoid moving an historic accessory structure from its original location. B. If an existing accessory structure is beyond re- pair, then replacing it in-kind is encouraged. 1) An exact reconstruction of the accessory struc- ture is not necessary. However, the replacement should be compatible with the overall character of the historic structure, while accommodating new uses. 10. New Accessory Structures A new accessory structure should be subordinate to the primary structure on a site. A. Locate an accessory structure to the rear of a lot. 1) Locating an accessory structure to the side of a primary structure, but set back substantially may also be considered. 2) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.30.120, Table 3-3, which provides setback requirements for residential accessory uses and structures. B. Construct an accessory structure that is subor- dinate in size and character with the primary build- ing. 1) In general, accessory structures should be unob- trusive and not compete visually with the house. While the roof line does not have to match the house, it is best that it not vary significantly. If an existing accessory structure has historic significance, then its preservation is encouraged. Locate an accessory structure to the rear of a lot. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 76 An accessory structure should be similar in character to those seen traditionally. Basic rectangular forms, with hip, gable or shed roofs, are appropriate. Trash areas for commercial uses should be screened from view, using a fence, hedge or enclosure. 2) An accessory structure should remain subordi- nate, in terms of mass, size and height, to the pri- mary structure. C. An accessory structure should be similar in char- acter to those seen traditionally. 1) Basic rectangular forms, with hip, gable or shed roofs, are appropriate. D. Maintain the traditional range of building ma- terials seen on accessory structures. 1) Appropriate siding materials for secondary build- ings include: unpainted or stained wood siding, wood planks, vertical board and batten siding or corrugated metal. 2) These materials should be utilitarian in appear- ance. The use of muted, natural colors and fin- ishes is particularly encouraged. E. Maintain the simple detailing found on acces- sory structures. 1) Ornate detailing on an accessory structure is in- appropriate. 2) Avoid details that may give an outbuilding a resi- dential appearance. Accessory structures should not mimic primary structures. 11. Service Areas Service areas include places for loading as well as stor- age for trash, recycling containers, snow, firewood and site maintenance equipment. Many of these require access year-round and should therefore be carefully planned as an integral part of a site. At the same time, the visual impacts of service areas should be mini- mized. When laying out a site, adequate provision should be made for service areas. They should not sim- ply be located in “left over” side yards, for example. A. Service areas should not be visible from major pedestrian ways. 1) Locate a service area along the rear of a site, when feasible. 2) Trash areas, including large waste containers or dumpsters, should also be screened from view, using a fence, hedge or enclosure. For a larger stor- age area, consider using a shed to enclose it. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 77 3) Consideration should be given to wintertime snow and ice buildup that could otherwise impede ac- cess to receptacles. 4) Combine service areas with those of other prop- erties, when feasible. 5) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.24.040(B)(7) for more guidance regarding trash storage areas. 12. Utilities Utilities that serve properties may include telephone and electrical lines, electrical transformers, ventilation systems, gas meters, propane tanks, air conditioners and telecommunication systems. Adequate space should be planned in a project from the outset and they should be designed such that their visual impacts are minimized. A. Minimize the visual impacts of utilities and ser- vice equipment. 1) Locate utilities at the rear of a property and screen them. 2) Minimize the visual impacts of exhaust systems by integrating them into the building design. 3) Any utility device or piece of service equipment should have a matte or non-reflective finish and be integrated with the building colors. 4) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.30.160 for guidance on the undergrounding of utilities. 5) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.24.040(B)(7) for more guidance regarding the screening of utility equipment. B. Screen rooftop appurtenances, such as mechani- cal equipment and antennas, from view. 1) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.24.040(C)(3) for more guidance. C. Solar devices should not block views or signifi- cantly detract from the setting. 1) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.30.140 which provides guidelines for the placement and screening of solar equipment. 13. Snow Shedding New buildings should minimize the potential nega- tive impacts of snow shedding patterns on adjacent properties and pedestrian ways. A. Provide for safe snow shedding and removal. 1) Commercial buildings with metal-clad roofs should have snow guards, brakes or other devices to prevent snow and ice shedding onto public ways. 2) Locate decks, courtyards and pedestrian ways such that snow shedding hazards are minimized. 3) Place crickets or other snow guard devices in such a way that they do not alter the form of the roof as seen from the street. 4) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.30.130 which provides snow storage area requirements for all developments with off-street parking except single-family dwellings, secondary residential units and duplexes. Place crickets or other snow guard devices in such a way that they do not alter the form of the roof as seen from the street. Design Guidelines for Site Features Chapter 10 Page 78 14. Accessibility The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) man- dates that places of public accommodation be acces- sible to all users. A. The guidelines introduced in this document should not prevent or inhibit compliance with ac- cessibility laws. 1) All new construction should comply completely with the ADA. 2) Owners of historic properties also should comply to the fullest extent, while also preserving the in- tegrity of the of the character-defining features of a building. 3) Special provisions for historic buildings exist in Federal and State accessibility laws that allow for some alternative design solutions. 4) Consult with the State Historic Preservation Office for more information regarding compliance or alternative design solutions for accessibility in an historic structure. 15. Newspaper Racks Newspaper racks, when clustered at a corner or along sidewalks, can impede pedestrian activity and obscure the storefronts behind them. Their visual impact should be minimized. A. Minimize the visual impacts of newspaper racks. 1) Newspaper racks will be grouped and screened by a specialty enclosure. The design of the enclo- sure is to be consistent with the building materi- als guidelines for new buildings. 2) A newspaper rack should be painted in a muted color. 3) The specialty enclosure should not impede access to crosswalks or on-street parking and should not be located at corners or on crowded pedestrian ways. Design Guidelines For Signs Chapter 11 Page 79 CHAPTER 11 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR SIGNS This chapter presents design guidelines for the treat- ment of signs associated with commercial uses. The design guidelines are organized into relevant design topics, and within these are the individual policies and design guidelines upon which the Town will base its decisions. Traditionally, a variety of signs were seen in Truckee. Five different types occurred: • Small, freestanding signs mounted on a pole or post; located near the sidewalk because the pri- mary structure or business was set back from the street (e.g., an area with residential character); printed on both sides • Medium-sized, square or rectangularly-shaped signs that projected from the building above the awnings or canopies; printed on both sides • Small signs hung below canopies • Medium- to large-sized, horizontally-oriented rect- angular signs attached flat against the building, above and/or below canopies; printed on one side only • Window signs, painted on glass; used at the street level and on upper floors Topics Discussed in this Chapter: 1. Sign Context 2. Appropriate Signs 3. Materials 4. Sign Content 5. Sign Lighting Signs that were mounted on the exterior advertised the primary business of a building. Typically, this use occupied a street level space and sometimes upper floors as well. In addition, signs were mounted to fit within archi- tectural features. In many cases, they were mounted flush above the storefront, just above moldings. Oth- ers were located between columns or centered in “sign boards” on a building face. This method also enabled one to perceive the design character of individual struc- tures, and is the preferred alternative for most struc- tures in Truckee. References: ☞ Also consult Chapters 18.54 and 18.56 of the Truckee Municipal Code. Design Guidelines For Signs Chapter 11 Page 80 1. Sign Context A sign typically serves two functions: first, to attract attention, and second to convey information, essen- tially identifying the business or services offered within. If it is well designed, the building front alone can serve the attention-getting function, allowing the sign to be focused on conveying information in a well- conceived manner. A. Consider the building front as part of an overall sign program. 1) Integrate a sign within the structure’s design into a unified architectural statement. 2) Develop a master sign plan for the entire build- ing. This is especially important for buildings that house multiple businesses. The master sign plan can then guide individual sign design decisions. 3) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.54.040 which provides more information about filing a Comprehensive Sign Program. B. Design a sign to be subordinate to the overall building composition. 1) A sign should be consistent with the proportions and scale of the elements within the structure’s facade. 2) Locate a sign on a building such that it will em- phasize design elements of the facade itself. 3) Study the facade of the structure to determine if there are any architectural features or details that suggest a location, size or shape for the sign. These could be bands or frames of brickwork, cornice lines, indentations or projections in the face ma- terial. 4) Look at the facade of the structure in relation to where adjacent businesses have placed their signs. There may be an established pattern of sign loca- tions. 5) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.56.030(E) for more guidance regarding sign placement. C. Do not locate signs so that they cover architec- tural features that may b e important t o the structure’s overall design. 1) This is especially important for a building with historic significance. 2) Design a sign to integrate with the architectural features of the building on which it is to be in- stalled and not distract attention from them. 3) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.56.030(E) for more guidance regarding sign placement. Coordinate the overall facade composition, including ornamental details and signs. Design Guidelines For Signs Chapter 11 Page 81 2. Appropriate Signs A. A flush-mounted wall sign may be considered. 1) In many cases, Vernacular Commercial buildings common in Truckee have a “sign band.” This is the ideal location for a primary building sign. The sign band is typically located above the transom and below the second-floor windows. 2) When using the sign band location, fit the panel within the band borders. 3) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.54.070(K) for more general standards. B. An awning sign may be considered. 1) An awning sign may be woven, sewn or painted onto the vertical valence of an awning. 2) Wording or graphics that are simple and concise are preferred. 3) Internal illumination of an awning sign is not rec- ommended. 4) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.54.070(A) for more general standards. 5) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.56.030(F)(1) for more guidance regarding awning signs. C. A window sign may be considered. 1) It may be painted on the glass or hung just inside a window. 2) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.54.070(L) for more general standards. 3) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.56.030(F)(2) for more guidance regarding window signs. D. A projecting sign may be considered. 1) A projecting sign is attached to a building face and is mounted perpendicular to the facade. 2) Locate a projecting sign near the business entrance at eye level, just above the door or to the side of it. A project sign may also be located on the un- derside of a canopy. 3) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.54.070(F) for more general standards. A window sign may be considered. A window sign may be painted on or hung just inside a window. A projecting sign may be considered. References: ☞ See also 18.54.080 to determine the maximum number, sign area, sign height and location requirements for appropriate signs in Truckee. Note that this information is organized by zoning district. Design Guidelines For Signs Chapter 11 Page 82 E. A building directory sign may be considered. 1) Where several businesses share a building, coor- dinate the signs. Align several smaller signs, or group them into a single panel as a directory. 2) Use similar forms or backgrounds for the signs to tie them together visually and make them easier to read. 3) A building directory sign is considered a wall sign; see also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.54.070(K) for more general standards. Where several businesses share a building, coordinate the signs. F. A freestanding, ground-mounted sign may be considered. 1) A freestanding sign may also be used in areas where the primary use is set back from the street edge. 2) A monument sign, where the sign itself is low to the ground with a large base or foundation, is gen- erally not appropriate. 3) A pole-mounted sign, where a small sign panel is suspended from an arm that is attached to the pole, is preferred where a freestanding sign is needed for a commercial building that is set back from the street. 4) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.54.070(K) for more general standards. 5) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.56.030(F)(3) for more guidance regarding ground-mounted signs. G. Signs that are out of character with those seen historically and that would alter the historic charac- ter of the street are not recommended. 1) Animated signs are inappropriate. 2) Any sign that visually overpowers the building or obscures significant architectural features is inap- propriate. 3) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.54.050 for more information regarding pro- hibited signs. A pole-mounted sign is preferred for smaller buildings, such as those historic residences converted to commercial uses. References: Any sign that visually overpowers the building or obscures significant architectural features is inappropriate. ☞ See also 18.54.080 to determine the maximum number, sign area, sign height and location requirements for appropriate signs in Truckee. Note that this information is organized by zoning district. Design Guidelines For Signs Chapter 11 Page 83 3. Materials A. Sign materials should be compatible with the design theme and use of materials on the building where the sign is to be placed. 1) Painted wood and metal are preferred materials for signs. 2) Plastic is inappropriate. 3) Highly reflective materials that will be difficult to read are inappropriate. 4) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.56.030(B) for more guidance regarding sign materials. Painted wood and metal are preferred materials for signs. 4. Sign Content A. Consider using a symbol for a sign. 1) A symbol sign adds interest to the street, can be read quickly and is remembered better than writ- ten words. 2) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.56.030(C) for more guidance regarding the use of symbol signs. B. Sign colors should complement the colors used on the structures and the project as a whole. 1) Overpowering colors should be restrained for use as accent colors. 2) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.56.030(A) for more guidance regarding sign colors. C. A simple sign design is preferred. 1) Typefaces that are in keeping with those seen in the area traditionally are preferred. Select letter styles and sizes that will be compatible with the building front. 2) Generally, these are typefaces with serifs. 3) Avoid hard-to-read or overly intricate typeface styles. 4) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.56.030(C) for more guidance regarding sign design. Symbol signs add interest to the street, are quickly read and are remembered better than written words. Design Guidelines For Signs Chapter 11 Page 84 5. Sign Lighting A Indirect lighting for a sign is permitted. 1) Direct light at the sign from an external, shielded lamp is preferred. 2) While internal illumination is discouraged else- where in Truckee, in the Downtown its use is in- appropriate. 3) A warm light, similar to daylight, is preferred. 4) Light that shines directly in the eyes of pedestri- ans is not recommended. 5) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.54.060(C) for more guidance regarding the illumination of signs. 6) See also the Truckee Development Code, chap- ter 18.56.030(D) for more guidance regarding the illumination of signs. Lighting that is directed at a sign from an external, shielded lamp, is preferred. Design Guidelines For Public Improvements Chapter 12 Page 85 CHAPTER 12 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS Introduction This chapter provides design guidelines for public sec- tor improvements in the downtown. This includes streetscape design, as well as the design of public build- ings. Policy Base The Downtown Specific Plan establishes key policies for development in the downtown, which include: • To preserve the historic character of downtown as a whole • To respect the different contexts or subareas within the downtown • To enhance the pedestrian experience and pro- mote pedestrian connections into adjacent neigh- borhoods • To extend the pedestrian-oriented commercial area out from Commercial Row along Donner Pass Road to the west and to Jibboom Street be- hind Commercial Row. The streetscape guidelines reflect these policies. They also reflect other objectives related to traffic and park- ing: • To improve traffic flow in the downtown • To reduce congestion and some intersections • To provide parking in an organized manner • To minimize the visual impacts of parking in sur- face lots In addition, the Downtown Streetscape Plan also pro- vides some design standards for public improvements within the street right-of-way. In case of differences between these guidelines and the Streetscape Plan, the Streetscape Plan shall take precedence. Downtown Truckee Specific Plan Volume 2: Policies and Programs Final Plan • November 1997 • Executive Summary page 11: “Provide coor- dinated street furnishings.” • Chapter 5 page 2: “The degree to which these improvements are used in each sub-district should vary somewhat, reflecting the antici- pated level of use by pedestrians and the rela- tionship to other features in the area.” • Chapter 5 page 3: “Use decorative paving to identify pedestrian areas.” • Chapter 5 page 3: “Coordinate streetscape el- ements in other DSA sub-districts and Mas- ter Plan areas with improvements in the Downtown Commercial Core.” • Chapter 5 page 7: “Crosswalks at intersections located along major pedestrian circulation routes shall be constructed with decorative unit pavers or other suitable material.” • Chapter 5 page 7: “Simple materials, forms and features compatible with the historic buildings are appropriate.” • Chapter 5 page 7: “4. Selected furnishings must complement the historic and natural setting of the Downtown Commercial Core while accommodating the needs of a contem- porary resort community.” • Chapter 5 page 10: “Fixtures and poles may vary by street segment, but should contribute to the overall charm of Downtown.” Design Guidelines For Public Improvements Chapter 12 Page 86 Balancing Objectives These design guidelines seek to balance the objectives of historic preservation, economic development and traffic engineering. Achieving a workable balance is key. Overall new streetscape improvements should remain subordinate to the historic structures that sur- vive, while also providing an attractive place for pe- destrians. For much of the town’s early history, streets were unpaved and few sidewalks existed. Historically, the streetscape was not exactly hospitable to pedestrians, although early photographs demonstrate the community’s efforts to improve these conditions. On the other hand, as the downtown seeks even more to cater to visitors and residents, pedestrian systems are needed that are inviting and that visually establish a sense of connectivity among different subareas of the commercial core. This includes the introduction of additional sidewalks, decorative paving and light- ing. While sidewalks are being introduced in some areas, traffic flow and parking systems must also be considered. Historic Character of the Streetscape Early photographs portray a rustic street scene in Truckee, but evidence of efforts to enhance the set- ting appear from the outset. What is apparent is that streetscape features such as boardwalks, fences and benches occurred somewhat randomly. Initial improvements included boardwalks in some areas, primarily along Front Street, but also in other isolated applications as well. Later, simple concrete walks were installed. Most residential streets, however, remained without formally defined pedestrian ways. Within an individual property, owners sometimes constructed boardwalks as well. These led from the street to the front entrance. Some service areas were screened with solid plank fences, which were similar in character to the wood finishes of nearby buildings. Frequently, residential yards were defined by fences, in a variety of wood picket designs. Historically, many streets were rustic in character, as this view of Jibboom Street demonstrates. Simple wood utility poles reflect a character of the street that may relate to street lighting concepts. A variety of fences were used to define yards Design Guidelines For Public Improvements Chapter 12 Page 87 1. Public Buildings Public buildings include churches, schools, libraries and governmental offices. Traditionally, buildings for these uses contrasted with the framework of store- fronts and houses: While they are not aligned along a block like commercial buildings, they stand alone framed by a lawn as a foreground. Their large scale, however, distinguishes them from their residential counterparts. Entrances are also more prominent. They are clearly a part of the downtown, however, with entrances oriented to the street and walkways that promote pedestrian use. This helps to convey their function as a gathering place. This tradition of design- ing civic institutions as landmarks in the urban fabric should continue. A. Locate civic institutions such that they encour- age pedestrian traffic to nearby downtown busi- nesses. 1) Design civic institutions to reinforce the system of streets and sidewalks downtown. 2) Convenient pedestrian connections should link abutting civic institutions. 3) Provide edges of a civic property that are inviting to pedestrians. 4) Provide outdoor spaces designed for public use. B. Minimize the visual impacts of automobiles. 1) Locate primary entrances to face the street, not a parking lot. C. Convey a sense of human scale. D. Minimize impacts on adjacent historic resources. Civic buildings, including churches stood out as accents of the town fabric. Design Guidelines For Public Improvements Chapter 12 Page 88 2. Streetscape Design Character Enhancements to the streetscape should occur that enhance one’s ability to perceive the historic charac- ter of downtown, improve pedestrian circulation and visually link properties within a neighborhood. While many streets had no sidewalks at all, early photographs do show that wooden boardwalks were used frequently. In an area that historically was residential, maintain some yard space between the sidewalk and the building. Historic porches and steps also should be preserved. In a sense, the street is being adaptively reused, to ac- commodate changing needs, just as many historic buildings are. A. The overall character of the streetscape should not impede one’s ability to interpret the historic fea- tures of the area. 1) Highly ornamental elements, for example would suggest an inaccurate heritage of the community. 2) The overall streetscape should be modest in char- acter, while also meeting contemporary functional needs. B. The overall character of the streetscape also should reflect the subarea within which it is located. 1) An area that historically has been residential should continue to reflect this character in the manner in which landscape materials are used, for example. 3. Sidewalks While many streets had no sidewalks at all, early pho- tographs do show that wooden boardwalks were used frequently. Where they were employed, they provided a visual unity to an area, with a simple textured sur- face. This tradition should be continued. A. A sidewalk design should reflect the character of its historic context. 1) In general, sidewalk designs should be modest in character. 2) In a commercial area, the sidewalk should be at- tached to the curb, when feasible. 3) In an area that historically was residential, main- tain some yard space between the sidewalk and the building. Historic porches and steps also should be preserved. (See also Site Design Guide- lines.) Design Guidelines For Public Improvements Chapter 12 Page 89 B. Sidewalk paving should be a simple concrete finish. 1) Broom-finished, grey concrete is preferred for the predominant material. 2) A scored concrete, which reflects the texture of boardwalks used historically, also may be consid- ered. 3) The exception is along Commercial Row, where a decorative modular paver is used. C. Decorative paving may be used to define spe- cial functional areas. 1) For example, using decorative paving at cross- walks and in courtyards is appropriate. 2) Decorative paving should be similar to the paver used in Commercial Row. 4. Street Lighting In Truckee’s earliest history, no public street lighting was used. Then, when the first street lights were in- stalled, they were simple, utilitarian devices. New street lights should continue this tradition of simplicity, while accommodating new needs. A. Street lights should have a simple design char- acter. 1) Highly ornamental lights that convey a history that was not a part of Truckee are inappropriate. 2) The exception is along Commercial Row, where ornamental lights are presently installed. B. Street lighting should be shielded. 1) This will help to minimize glare into the night- time sky and reduce light spill onto adjacent prop- erties. Decorative paving may be used to define special functional areas, as illsutrated above, with paving defining a seating area. Street lights should have a simple design character. Design Guidelines For Public Improvements Chapter 12 Page 90 Historically, trees were planted randomly and located in yards bump-out Consider clustering trees in defined planting areas. 5. Street Trees Historically, trees were planted randomly and located in yards, rather than in the public right-of-way (al- though the informal layout of many streets may have resulted in some trees appearing to be in the street). Rows of uniformly spaced street trees were not a part of the design traditions of downtown. While installa- tion of some street trees may occur, the informal plant- ing patterns should be continued. A. Where they are to be used, street trees should be planted randomly, to convey an informal char- acter. 1) Consider clustering trees in defined planting ar- eas. B. Use a variety of species for street trees. 1) This will help to convey the diversity and irregu- larity of the historic character of the area. 6. Planters Formally defined planters were not a part of the his- toric character of downtown. Today, planters are a desirable feature that can enhance the pedestrian ex- perience. Where they are used, however, they should not impede one’s ability to interpret the historic char- acter of the area. A. Where they are to be used, planters should be placed randomly, to convey an informal character. 7. Fences Fences have been used traditionally to define areas of special functions and to screen services areas. This tra- dition should be continued in streetscape designs. Use of plank fence for screening service areas References: ☞ See also Chapter 10: Design Guidleines for Site Features. General Guidelines for New Buildings Chapter 13 Page 91 CHAPTER 13 GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR NEW BUILDINGS This section presents design guidelines for all new buildings in downtown Truckee. The guidelines pro- vide property owners with assistance in designing infill structures that are compatible with the existing down- town infrastructure. The basic principles for new con- struction relate to respecting the historic design char- acter, setbacks, building alignment, scale and lot pat- terns. In addition to the general Guidelines for New Build- ings, more specific ones are included for individual Character Areas of Downtown Truckee. These Char- acter Areas each reflect differences in historical de- velopment and existing features that contribute to the unique visual characteristics of each area. The Char- acter Areas are: • Brickelltown Character Area • Commercial District Character Area • Burckhaulter Character Area • River Character Area • Church Street Character Area • McGlashan Addition Character Area • Railroad Character Area • South River Character Area • Hilltop Character Area Character Area Boundaries The boundaries for these Character Areas generally follow those defined in historical studies, particularly the publication Fire and Ice: A Portrait of Truckee (ed. Members of the Truckee Donner Historical So- ciety, 1994). However, in some cases, two or more historic neighborhoods have been combined to form a new, single Character Area to reflect the similarity in design policies that they share. In drawing the boundaries for these Character Areas, the lines delimiting three other planning variables also were considered: Historic Preservation District Overlay The Town of Truckee has adopted an historic preser- vation overlay boundary for the downtown. This de- fines the area for which the preservation design guide- lines presented in this document apply. All of the Character Areas are drawn to fit within this bound- ary. In some cases, therefore, portions of the neigh- borhoods that may have historically been associated with the area are excluded from the purview of these design guidelines. Historic Neighborhood Boundaries Historians generally define neighborhood boundaries based on their early development patterns. In Truckee, they were defined in some cases by subdivision filings and in other cases by cultural histories of the residents who tended to congregate in certain portions of the town. These boundaries are generally defined in the publication, Fire and Ice. When the current physical design features that were used to define the Character Area boundaries correspond to these historic neigh- borhoods, they are used. General Guidelines for New Buildings Chapter 13 Page 92 Downtown Specific Plan Study Area In 1997, with the publication of the Downtown Truckee Specific Plan, a series of eight sub areas were defined within the Downtown Study Area: “Each sub area has its own unique characteristics, problems and opportunities, therefore, a set of land use policies and implementation measures have been developed for each.” When the current physical design features that were used to define the Character Area boundaries correspond to those sub areas identified in the Spe- cific Plan, they are used. The Basic Principles for New Construction While the design guidelines for new con- struction presented in the following chap- ters provide direction for specific design issues, some basic design principles form the foundation for them. The following principles apply in Truckee: 1. Respect the design character of the nearby historic properties. Don’t try to make a new building look older than it is. The copying or exact du- plication of architectural styles or specific historic buildings is also inappropriate. Often, a contemporary interpretation of those architectural styles seen historically will work best. 2. Maintain the setbacks and alignments of buildings in the surrounding context. A new building should be set back a simi- lar distance from the street as those nearby historic buildings and incorporate a land- scaped area that is in keeping with the neighborhood. Other alignments, such as those seen from similar eave heights, porch heights and the relative alignment of win- dow and door moldings, are also impor- tant. 3. Relate to the scale of nearby historic buildings. A new building should relate to the gen- eral size, shape and proportions of those buildings seen historically. It is equally important for a new building to use simi- lar primary building materials, at least in appearance. 4. In residential areas, relate to the size of lot patterns. A new building should be in proportion with the overall size of its lot. Generally, smaller homes are built on smaller lots, and larger homes are reserved for larger lots. Although many of the lots and the tradi- tional scale of single-family houses in the Character Areas are smaller than current tastes support, a new building should, to the greatest extent possible, maintain the established scale. General Guidelines for New Buildings Chapter 13 Page 93 Downtown Truckee’s Character Areas 3 5 7 6 2 4 1 8 9 Historic Overlay Boundary Key 1 - Brickelltown 2 - Commercial District 3 - Bruckhaulter 4 - River 5 - Church Street 6 - Mc Glashan 7 - Railroad 8 - South River 9 - Hilltop Downtown truckee is generally considered to be the area encompassed by the Historic Overlay Boundary, which is on the map above. This is then divided into nine sub-areas. General Guidelines for New Buildings Chapter 13 Page 94 Guidelines for New Buildings These guidelines apply to all new construction within the Historic Preservation Overlay for downtown. 1. Building Setbacks The distance from the street or property line to the front of the building should be similar to that estab- lished historically in the Character Area and in simi- lar contexts. On many residential streets buildings align with relatively uniform setbacks. This results in a sense of visual continuity along a block and helps to highlight the curvilinear nature of these streets. This is an important feature that should be maintained. In other places, however, some variety in setbacks exists and in such a situation greater flexibility in setback is appropriate. By contrast, most buildings in the commercial area align at the inside walkway edge. This contributes to a sense of visual continuity in such blocks, and should be maintained. A. Maintain the pattern of alignment for building fronts in the Character Area. 1) In a residential context, where similar front set- backs are characteristic, maintain the alignment of uniformly setback facades. 2) In a residential context, where variety in building setbacks is a part of the historic context, locating a new building within the traditional range of set- backs is appropriate. 3) In some cases, site constraints may prevent align- ing a new building with the historic context. In these situations, using landscaping elements such as fences and walls to define these lines should be considered. New building Where variety in building setbacks is a part of the historic context, locating a new building within the traditional range of setbacks is appropriate. New building within setback range New building outside setback range In a residential context, where similar front setbacks are characteristic, maintain the alignment of uniformly setback facades. In the bottom sketch, the new building is outside of the traditional range of setbacks and is inappropriate. General Guidelines for New Buildings Chapter 13 Page 95 2. Building Orientation The manner in which a new building relates to the street is an important consideration in terms of com- patibility with its context. Traditional siting patterns should be respected. A. Orient a new building parallel to its lot lines in a manner similar to that of historic building orienta- tions. 1) This orientation also should be compatible with any distinctive lot patterns in the relevant Char- acter Area. (Exceptions may apply in the Hilltop and Railroad Character Areas. 2) This applies to both primary and accessory struc- tures. B. Orient the primary entrance of a building to- ward the street. 1) Buildings should have a clearly defined primary entrance. For example, provide a recessed entryway on a commercial building, or provide a porch on a residential structure, to define its en- try. 2) The gable end of a structure should also face the street. 3) Entrances on the rear or sides of buildings should clearly be secondary to those on the front. 4) Exceptions apply in the Hilltop and Railroad Character Areas, where buildings may orient to a shared open space. C. In some cases two dwellings appear on the same lot. In situations where the historic building is set to the back of the lot it may be appropriate for a new building to be in front of the existing historic build- ing. 1) This should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. 2) New construction should be historically compat- ible with the existing structure on the lot. 3) This option would be appropriate in a case where the historic building does not have a strong ori- entation to the street that would be altered by construction of a new building on the site. Orient a new building parallel to its lot lines, similar to that of historic building orientations. Orient the primary entrance of a building toward the street. The gable end of a structure should also face the street. In some cases two dwellings appear on the same lot, as seen in the c. 1890 map above. General Guidelines for New Buildings Chapter 13 Page 96 3. Mass and Scale The mass and scale of buildings in Downtown Truckee are key considerations that effect compatibility. The height, width and depth of a new building should be compatible with historic buildings in the downtown and within the Character Area A. New construction should appear similar in mass and size to historic structures found in the Charac- ter Area. 1) Break up the massing of larger buildings into com- ponents that reflect this traditional size. 2) An exception may be a new civic or institutional building that is intended to be a dominant fea- ture in the Character Area. B. A facade should appear similar in dimension to those seen historically in the town. 1) Typically, a residential building front ranges from 20 to 25 feet in width, with larger residences rang- ing from 30 to 35 feet in width. Additional widths were accomplished with a setback or change in building plane. 2) Commercial buildings typically had building fronts ranging from 15 to 30 feet in width. 3) Civic and institutional buildings may vary from the typical facade dimensions. 4. Building Form Most historic buildings in Downtown Truckee have very simple forms, and new structures should respect this design tradition. A. In a new building use forms that are similar to those found traditionally in the Character Area. 1) The overall building form should be similar to historic buildings found in the specific Character Area. 2) Maintain the traditional proportions (height to width to depth) found in the Character Area. B. Use traditional roof forms. 1) Sloping roof forms, such as gabled and shed, should be the dominant roof shapes in residential contexts. 2) Non-traditional roof forms are inappropriate. 3) Flat roof lines are appropriate on commercial structures on Commercial Row. Typically, a residential building front ranges from 15 to 30 feet in width. Additional widths were accomplished with a setback or change in building plane. C. The number and size of dormers should be lim- ited on a roof, such that the primary roof form re- mains prominent. 1) Dormers should be used with restraint, in keep- ing with the simple character of buildings in Truckee. D. Roofs should be similar in size to those used his- torically on comparable buildings. 1) The length of a roof ridge should not exceed those seen historically on comparable buildings. Histori- cally, in residential contexts, the maximum ridge length was 35 to 40 feet. Dormers should be used with restraint, in keeping with the simple character of buildings in Truckee. General Guidelines for New Buildings Chapter 13 Page 97 5. Building Materials Traditionally, a limited palette of building materials— wood, brick and stone— was used in Truckee. Acces- sory structures also had a limited range of materials, sometimes more rustic and utilitarian in character. The type of materials used should be selected from those used historically in the community and specifically in the Character Area. Also, new materials should have a simple finish, similar to those seen historically. A. Maintain the existing range of exterior wall materials found throughout the Character Area. 1) Appropriate materials for primary structures in- clude horizontal lap siding, board-and-batten, shingles (in limited applications), brick and stone. 2) Stucco, when it is tinted earth tone in color and detailed to express visual interest and convey a sense of human scale will be considered on a case- by-case basis. For example, use reveals or scoring lines to create panels to establish a rhythm and texture along a wall, or provide moldings and frame openings that establish shadow lines and visual relief. Stucco shall not be the primary build- ing material and may only be approved for use as a secondary material on a case-by-case basis. 3) Reflective materials, such as mirrored glass or polished metals, are inappropriate. 4) Rustic shakes are inappropriate. 5) Corrugated metal may be considered on accessory structures and as additive forms on commercial buildings. B. Exterior wood finishes should appear similar to those used historically. 1) Maintain protective coatings of paint or stain on exterior wood siding. 2) The lap dimensions of siding should be similar to that found traditionally (i.e., four to five inches of lap exposure). C. Masonry should appear similar to that used his- torically. 1) Masonry unit sizes should be similar to those found traditionally. 2) The texture and color of the brick also should be similar. Synthetic materials, such as this composite Hardiplank may be considered, if they appear similar in character and detailing to traditional building materials. D. Newer, synthetic materials may be considered, if they appear similar in character and detailing to traditional building materials. 1) New materials must have a demonstrated dura- bility in this climate and have the ability to be repaired under reasonable conditions. 2) Details of synthetic siding should match that of traditional wood siding. The lap dimensions of synthetic siding should be similar to that of his- toric wood-lap siding, which are typically four to five inches of exposure. 3) Physical samples of any synthetic materials may be required, and their use will be approved on a case-by-case basis. E. For larger buildings and projects on large par- cels, consider a combination of appropriate materi- als as a means to reduce the apparent size of the project. F. Materials should be applied in a manner similar to that used historically. 1) For example, brick veneer should not “float” above a wood clapboard wall. General Guidelines for New Buildings Chapter 13 Page 98 6. Roof Materials A variety of roof materials exist in the Character Ar- eas. Today, the use of composition shingles dominates. Historic research indicates that wood shingles and standing seam metal roofs were all seen in Truckee. Roof materials are major elements in the street scene and contribute to the character of individual building styles. Roof materials for new buildings should be used in a manner similar to that seen historically in the Character Area. A. Roof materials on new buildings should appear similar to those used traditionally. 1) Composite shingles in muted colors are appropri- ate. 2) Sawn wood shingles are appropriate for most building types. Rustic wood shakes are inappro- priate. 3) Metal roofs may be considered. B. If they are to be used, metal roofs should be ap- plied and detailed in a manner that does not dis- tract from the historic appearance of the building. 1) Metal roof materials should be earth tones and have a matte, non-reflective finish. 2) Seams should be of a thin, low profile. 3) Many modern metal roofing materials do not have proportions that are appropriate to the historic character of the town and are inappropriate. Metal roof materials should be earth tones and have a matte, non- reflective finish. Composite shingles in muted colors are appropriate General Guidelines for New Buildings Chapter 13 Page 99 7. Design Character Traditionally, buildings in Truckee were simple in character. This is a fundamental characteristic that is vital to the preservation of the historic integrity of the downtown. New buildings should be distinguish- able as more recent additions to the community, al- beit in a subtle way such that the overall historic char- acter is conveyed. Regardless of stylistic treatment, a new building should appear simple in form and detail, in keeping with the tradition of Truckee. Buildings also should be visually compatible with older struc- tures in the Character Areas without being direct cop- ies of them. A. Respect the sense of time and place i n all projects. 1) In all new construction, one should be able to per- ceive the character of the downtown as it was his- torically. Do not, however, attempt to create an exact perception of a point of time in the past. B. Avoid stylistic ornamentation that confuses the history of Truckee. 1) Use ornamental details with constraint, and do not use historic details in a way that would con- fuse the history of the area. C. New interpretations of traditional building styles are encouraged 1) A new design that draws upon the fundamental similarities among historic buildings in the com- munity (without copying them) is preferred. This will allow new structures to be seen as products of their own time yet compatible with their historic neighbors. 2) The exact copying or replication of historic styles is discouraged. 8. Building Foundations Many of Truckee’s historic houses were built on rock foundations. When possible this should be continued. A. When designing a building foundation wall, de- sign it to be compatible with similar historic build- ings in the character area. 1) The form, materials and detailing of a founda- tion wall should be similar to that of nearby his- toric structures. B. On any sloped site the building foundation and form should step with the natural topography of the site. On any sloped site the building foundation and form should step with the natural topography of the site. General Guidelines for New Buildings Chapter 13 Page 100 The Brickelltown Character Area Chapter 14 Page 101 CHAPTER 14 THE BRICKELLTOWN CHARACTER AREA The Brickelltown Character Area comprises much of the land between Donner Pass Road and High Street, as well as a few structures on the northeast side of Interstate 80. The area includes a row of buildings along the western portion of Donner Pass Road, built at the foot of a large cut in the hillside to the north of the highway. Railroad tracks lie south of Donner Pass Road. Note that historically this neighborhood ex- tended farther to the west, but several structures were removed for construction of the interstate interchange and those parcels are excluded from the Character Area boundary. Today, Brickelltown serves as the western gateway to Truckee. Historic Significance Along Donner Pass Road, Brickelltown was the loca- tion of Coburn’s Station, one of the early Truckee settlements destroyed by fire. Today this neighborhood is home to some of the oldest residences in Truckee. It is known for its large Utilitarian and Victorian style residences, many of which have been converted to commercial uses. The buildings in this area are made almost exclusively from wood. Many of these houses were part of a subdivision planned by the Truckee Lumber Company. Perhaps the most notable residen- tial structure in the neighborhood is the Kruger-White House. Kruger, along with E.J. Brickell, owned the Truckee Lumber Company. Partly due to the large number of Brickell’s family members that settled in the neighborhood, it bears his name. Brickelltown’s long association with the two owners of the former Truckee Lumber Company is an important part of its history. There has been a long history of mixed uses. One of the most notable non-residential uses was for accom- modations. In 1904, C.B. White, a banker and South- ern Pacific Railroad Ticket Agent, purchased the Kruger residence. During the early twentieth century, the Whites opened the home as the “White House Hotel.” The Brickelltown neighborhood is located at the base of a steep hill near the western entrance of downtown. ☞ Please see page 97 (Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings) for a map that shows this Character Area in its Truckee context. The Brickelltown Character Area Chapter 14 Page 102 A historic photo of the White House Hotel, now known as the Kruger- White House. Historic Character Description Historic maps show that the area was predominantly residential in character, except for some commercial uses located in close proximity to the Commercial Row. Virtually all of the residential structures had front porches facing the street. Many of these porches spanned the entire width of the building, but some were L-shaped, and wrapped around to the side of the house. Historically, a typical parcel had one large structure located at the front (near Donner Pass Road), with smaller supporting buildings located in the rear (to- ward the hillside). The buildings followed the curva- ture of the hillside, but still appeared to be in relative alignment with one another as viewed from the street. Somewhat reflective of the commercial character of the downtown area, buildings in Brickelltown were a little more densely constructed at the eastern end, near the Commercial District. This served as a transition between the commercial uses and the surrounding resi- dential neighborhoods. Buildings in the western por- tion of the neighborhood were therefore a little more spread out. A mix of building types in Brickelltown provides a sense of visual diversity. Current Character Today, the Brickelltown Character Area is noted for a steep hillside backdrop that defines the northern boundary. Due to the railroad right-of-way across the street, most of the structures here are located on only the north side of Donner Pass Road. A mix of building types in this Character Area, that date from 1885 to 1930, provides a sense of visual diversity. Examples of traditional domestic, commer- cial and industrial architecture are found in this small neighborhood. Most buildings are simple in design, although some ornamentation was used historically. The smaller buildings tend to exhibit very few details, reserving most ornamentation for porches on domes- tic buildings and cornice lines for commercial archi- tecture. The Character Area is presently dominated by his- toric period residences, although some modern garage and warehouse buildings exist. Additionally, several historic residences have been converted into commer- cial uses. The showpiece of this area, as well as the community, is the Kruger-White House. This elabo- rate, Italianate mansion stands in great contrast to the more modest gable-front and cross-wing workers’ cot- tages that flank it. The Brickelltown Character Area Chapter 14 Page 103 Exterior wall materials traditionally were horizontal lap siding, for commercial and residential architecture alike. Stone was used generally for foundations. The limited combination of roof forms found on the buildings creates another striking feature. Most are simple gable roofs, with ridge lines perpendicular to the street. Wood shingles and standing seam metal were used on many early buildings, while today com- position shingles are frequently used. Even though the Brickelltown Character Area is both domestic and commercial in character, most buildings are located near the street edge, although small front yards are important historic features. Building en- trances are also close to the street. A varied line of building setbacks is seen, although a sense of street wall defined by building fronts is present. Parking is typically located in the front yard. Retaining walls are located in rear yards. The Character Area is presently dominated by historic period residences, although some modern garage and warehouse buildings exist. Some key design characteristics of this Character Area are: • Simple roof forms • Raised porch entrances on domestic buildings • Gable front on domestic buildings • Some raised foundations • Horizontal wood lap siding is the prominent build- ing material • Variety of architectural types and styles • Simple detailing on simple buildings • Elaborate detailing exists on larger, high-style structures • Buildings are one or two stories in height • Varied orientation of ridge lines on gable roofs • Small front yards Wood shingles and standing seam metal were used on many early buildings in Brickelltown. The Brickelltown Character Area Chapter 14 Page 104 • To minimize the visual impacts of cars Design Goals & Policies The Brickelltown Character Area should continue to develop in a coordinated manner so that an overall sense of visual continuity is achieved. Preservation of the historic integrity of this area is a primary goal. Gabled buildings, with small front yards, should be the predominant theme. At the same time, the walk- ing experience should be enhanced for pedestrians and the visual impacts of parking on site should be mini- mized. Projects that include a primary building with a subordinate secondary structure will aid in maintain- ing the historic character of the area. The design goals for the Brickelltown Character Area are: • To emphasize the preservation and restoration of historic structures, when feasible • To maintain the general historical alignment of buildings • To maintain traditional building mass, scale and forms along the front line of properties • To locate additional building mass (when neces- sary) to the rear of the property • To continue the use of traditional building mate- rials • To use the hill cut to conceal additional building mass • To minimize visual impacts of hill cuts, use land- scaping, stepped retaining walls, stem walls, and similar construction methods. • To enhance the pedestrian experience Enhancing the pedestrian experience should be one of the goals for the Brickelltown Character Area. The Brickelltown Character Area should continue to develop in a coordinated manner so that an overall sense of visual continuity is achieved. The Brickelltown Character Area Chapter 14 Page 105 bump-out with tree buffered parking If parking must be located to the front, it should be separated from the building front with a small yard and should be buffered from the street. Design Guidelines for New Buildings 1. Streetscape The Brickelltown Character Area establishes the out- ermost edge of development in the downtown. Any changes to the streetscape should result in projects that respect the historic street curvature. Additional streetscape enhancement should maintain front yards where feasible. A. Maintain the historic street curvature. 1) Where new streetscape elements are introduced, the historic layout of the street form should be preserved, to the extent feasible. B. Any new front yards should match the dimen- sions of historic front yards along the street. 1) These may be developed as courtyards, but should continue to convey a modest residential yard char- acter, to the extent feasible. C. Maintain historic yard character. 1. Locate sidewalks along front edge of yards. 2. Parking Parking on site should be visually subordinate to the residential character of the street. A. Locate parking to the rear when feasible, or po- sitioned to the side, but behind the front building line. B. If parking must be located to the front, it should be separated from the building front with a small yard and should be buffered from the street. References: ☞ See also Chapter 10: Design Guidelines for Site Features and Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings. The Brickelltown Character Area Chapter 14 Page 106 3. Mass and Scale The original residences and small, false-front commer- cial buildings contribute greatly to the overall charac- ter of this area. Although a few larger institutional structures exist, the smaller size and gable roof forms of the simple residences and businesses dominated the scene historically and should continue to do so. A. Maintain the average scale of one- and two-story buildings along the street. 1) As a means of minimizing the perceived mass of a project, consider developing a set of smaller buildings, with one primary building and other subordinate structures, rather than one large struc- ture. 2) Consider a series of small building modules, or components, that may be interconnected. B. Maintain the similarity of building heights. 1) The apparent height of the primary facade should not exceed two stories. This includes additions and new construction. 2) Taller portions may step back from the street side. 4. Building and Roof Form Historically, individual building forms were simple rectangular solids with gabled roofs, and false-front facades obscuring them on commercial structures. This tradition should be continued in new development. A. Use building forms similar to those found tradi- tionally. 1) Vertically-oriented rectangular shapes are typical and are encouraged. 2) One simple form should be the dominant element in a building design. 3) Building forms that step down in size to the rear of the lot are encouraged. 4) Smaller, secondary buildings should be simple rectangular shapes, as well. B. Use roof forms that are similar in scale and char- acter to those used historically. 1) Sloping, gable roof forms should be the dominant shapes. 2) Traditional roofs are simple and steeply pitched and most have gabled ends facing the street. Most primary roofs have pitches of 9:12, although some are as low as 7:12. 3) A flat roof also may be considered for secondary portions of a building. 4) Roofs composed of a combination of planes, but simple in form, are also encouraged. 5) Ridgelines should be similar in length to those seen historically. Place the height of the porch decks at an elevation similar to those found historically when feasible. 5. Porches Porches are especially characteristic o f the Brickelltown Character Area. Although a wide vari- ety of design details for porches is found, the basic organization of a porch as an entry element is an im- portant feature that should be continued. A. Use porches to define front entrances. 1) New porches should be similar in mass and size to those found historically in the Character Area. 2) Place the height of the porch decks at an eleva- tion similar to those found historically when fea- sible. 3) Porches should have a finished (painted) appear- ance. The Commercial District Character Area Chapter 15 Page 107 CHAPTER 15 THE COMMERCIAL DISTRICT CHARACTER AREA The Commercial District Character Area constitutes the business core of the historic downtown, in which most buildings were constructed with storefronts close to the sidewalk edge. This area roughly stretches be- tween Bridge Street and Spring Street along Front Street. A portion of Jibboom Street also lies within this Character Area. Historic Significance After a fire destroyed Coburn’s Station in 1868, some of the first buildings were erected in the Commercial District area. By 1885, much of Front Street, between Spring and Bridge Streets, was a well established com- mercial center. Fire, however, would continue to de- stroy parts of the downtown for years to come, result- ing in the prevalent use of brick in the construction. Behind Front Street was Jibboom Street. This area was home to the first residence in Truckee, Joseph Gray’s log cabin (built in 1863), and also the location of Truckee’s first Chinese settlement. By 1875, Jibboom Street was well known for an entirely differ- ent reason. The area became Truckee’s “red light” dis- trict, and it continued as such until the 1940s. Historic Character Description Comparing historic maps from 1898 and 1907, a clear progression of development can be seen. The inter- section of Bridge Street and Front Street was the main corner in downtown Truckee. Development was most dense at this intersection, and a solid wall of buildings stretched between Bridge and Spring Streets. These buildings, however, were only on one side of Front Street. Storefronts aligned at the sidewalk edge and faced south to the railroad tracks and many hotels and depots located in that extensive right-of-way. Canopies were also significant architectural features on the majority of commercial buildings. Historic maps and photographs show a solid line of them The Commercial District Character Area constitutes the business core of the historic downtown. ☞ Please see page 97 (Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings) for a map that shows this Character Area in its Truckee context. The Commercial District Character Area Chapter 15 Page 108 stretching from Bridge to Spring Streets. Over the years, breaks in this canopy line occurred. This com- ing-and-going of the canopies, however, was also a part of the tradition of building in Truckee. Jibboom Street, on the other hand, was not as densely developed as its Front Street counterpart. In fact, much of the land was a large corral. A more diverse mix of uses also occurred along Jibboom Street. Many residential building types could be seen, especially along the eastern two-thirds of the street. These “resi- dences” were widely spaced along the street, and more than likely had gable roof forms and front porches. Current Character Today much of the Commercial District, except for Jibboom Street, reflects commercial development over a broad period between 1870 and 1940. Because of this, a variety of commercial building types exists. The buildings are, however, related to each other through the use of masonry construction, the existence of a storefront and their historical setting near the railroad’s freight and passenger depots. A “refined” image is pre- sented to the street, with decorative trim and painted finishes, while the rear facades are utilitarian in na- ture and constructed of simpler materials. Front Street has a high concentration of historic build- ings. Twenty-one of the twenty-two buildings located here are officially designated as historic structures. The vast majority of the structures seen along the street are two-story. However, four are three-story, three are one-story, and one (Sierra Tavern) is four stories tall. Ground-level floors orient to pedestrian views with large display windows and recessed entries highlight- ing the goods and services offered inside. Upper-story windows are vertically oriented, usually rectangular, and appear as smaller openings in a predominantly solid wall. A horizontal band of molding separates the Jibboom Street serves as a transition between the downtown core and residential neighborhoods on the hillside. The west end of the Downtown District serves as a transition to the residences in the Brickelltown Character Area. Buildings step down in scale and exhibit many residential characteristics. A “refined” image is presented to the street. The Commercial District Character Area Chapter 15 Page 109 ground floor from upper portions of the facade and the entire building is capped with a parapet or decora- tive cornice. All of these elements combine to estab- lish a linear emphasis on the street. There are eleven buildings that are constructed en- tirely of brick and concrete block. These buildings are concentrated at each end of Commercial Row. Most of the structures in the middle of the strip are at least partially brick, with stucco or wood used in combina- tion. A recently improved sidewalk on Front Street is made up of several different patterns of custom brick shapes in combination with a variety of concrete finishes. The walk is continuously covered on the western one-third, mostly by second story balconies above. The remain- der of the Commercial Row sidewalk is open to the sky above. Details such as the ornamental lampposts and the scale of signage and storefronts increase vi- sual interest. Some key features of this Character Area are: • Buildings align at the sidewalk edge • Vernacular commercial buildings • One, two and three story buildings • Masonry construction is predominant, although several wood sided buildings also exist here. • Transparent ground floor with smaller windows “punched” into predominantly solid upper floors • Predominantly flat-roof buildings, although gabled buildings with false fronts existed • Canopies along Front Street • Alley access to the commercial row • Parking on the street and alley • Jibboom Street serves as a transition between the downtown core and residential neighborhoods on the hillside • Simpler building forms and styles found along Jibboom Street The buildings seen along the street are one to two stories in height, with some reaching heights of four stories. Several small, one-story buildings exist in downtown Truckee. Canopies align at the sidewalk edge along Front Street. The Commercial District Character Area Chapter 15 Page 110 Design Goals & Policies The design goals for the Commercial District Char- acter Area are: • To emphasize the preservation and restoration of historic structures, when feasible • To continue the use of traditional building mate- rials found in the area • To maintain the traditional mass, size and form of buildings seen along the street • To design new commercial buildings with store- front elements similar to those seen historically but without direct imitation of historic details • To design new construction that reinforces the retail-oriented function of the street and enhances its pedestrian character • To promote friendly, walkable streets • To align the setbacks of new buildings at the side- walk edge on Front Street • To reflect the historic building alignment in new construction on Jibboom Street • To provide variety of building forms on Jibboom Street, which has a mix of storefronts with gable roof structures One of the important design goals is to align new buildings at the sidewalk edge on Front Street. Another important design goal is to provide a variety of building forms on Jibboom Street, which has a mix of storefronts with gable roof structures. New buildings, like the one on the right, should continue the use of masonry construction. Jibboom Street serves as a transition between the downtown core and residential neighborhoods on the hillside. The Commercial District Character Area Chapter 15 Page 111 Design Goals & Policies, cont. parking in rear Jibboom Street In some cases , commercial buildings may be “double-fronted”, orienting to the street and to parking in rear. parking in rear Jibboom Street parking to side This sketch illustrates a variety of building forms on Jibboom Street, which has a mix of storefronts with gable roof structures. Design goals include designing new commercial buildings with storefront elements similar to those seen historically but without direct imitation of historic details. The Commercial District Character Area Chapter 15 Page 112 These guidelines in this chapter are pre- sented in two sections. The first section applies principally to Front Street. The second section applies to Jibboom Street. Design Guidelines for New Buildings Front Street 1. Building Setbacks Buildings create a strong edge to the street because they traditionally aligned on the front lot line and were usually built out the full width of the parcel to the side lot lines. Although small gaps do occur between some structures, they are the exceptions. These char- acteristics are vitally important to the historic integ- rity of the district and should be preserved. A. Maintain the alignment of facades a t the sidewalk's edge. 1) Locating an entire building front back from the established storefront line is inappropriate. 2. Mass and Scale Patterns are created along the street by the repetition of similarly-sized building elements. For example, uniform facade widths evenly spaced along Front Street create a rhythm that contributes to the visual continuity of the district. These features and similar patterns are some of the most important characteris- tics of the Commercial District Character Area and should be respected in all rehabilitation and new con- struction. A. Maintain the average perceived size of buildings. 1) Facade heights of new buildings should fall within the established range of the block, and respect the historic proportions of height to width. 2) Floor-to-floor heights should appear similar to those of historic buildings in the area. B. Traditional spacing patterns created by the rep- etition of uniform building widths along streets must be maintained. 1) No facade should exceed 50 feet without a clear expression of this standard module. 2) Where a building must exceed this width, use a change in design features to suggest the traditional building widths. Changes in facade material, win- dow design, facade height or decorative details are examples of techniques that may be considered. These variations should be expressed through the structure such that the composition appears to be a collection of smaller building modules. 3. Building and Roof Form One of the most prominent unifying elements of Front Street is the similarity in building form. Com- mercial buildings were simple rectangular solids, deeper than they were wide. This characteristic is important and should be continued in new projects. A. Rectangular forms should be dominant on com- mercial facades. 1) Rectangular forms should be vertically oriented. 2) The facade should appear as predominantly flat, with any decorative elements and projecting or setback “articulations” appearing to be subordinate to the dominant form. B. Use a flat roof line as the dominant roof form. 1) Gabled roofs may also be used as accents. 2) Parapets on side facades should step down towards the rear of the building. C. Along rear facades, a building should step down in height, and not be a continuous two- or three- story facade plane. 1) This is especially encouraged when rear areas are anticipated to have pedestrian activity. 2) Consider using additive forms, such as sheds, stairs and decks. These forms must, however, remain subordinate to the primary structure. References: ☞ See also Chapter 10: Design Guidelines for Site Features and Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings. The Commercial District Character Area Chapter 15 Page 113 4. Recessed Entries Many primary entrances to commercial buildings are recessed, providing a shaded area that helps to define doorways and to provide shelter to pedestrians. The repetition of this feature along the street contributes to the traditional or human scale of the area, and should be continued in a portion of the future projects. A. Maintain the pattern created b y recessed entryways. 1) Set the door back from the front facade an ad- equate amount to establish a distinct threshold for pedestrians. A recessed dimension of four feet is typical. 2) Where entries are recessed, the building line at the sidewalk edge should be maintained by the upper floor(s). 5. New Storefront Character The street level floors of traditional Truckee commer- cial buildings are clearly distinguishable from the up- per floors. First floors are predominantly fixed plate glass with a small percentage of opaque materials. Up- per floors are the reverse—opaque materials dominate, and windows appear as smaller openings puncturing the solid walls. These windows are usually double- hung. The street level is generally taller than the up- per floors. Storefronts of 12 to 14 feet high are typi- cal, whereas second floors of 10 to 12 feet are typical. This typical storefront character should be maintained. A. Maintain the traditional spacing pattern created by upper story windows. 1) Maintain the historic proportions of windows. 2) Headers and sills of windows on new buildings should maintain the traditional placement rela- tive to cornices and belt courses. B. Maintain the distinction between the street level and the upper floor of a new building in the Com- mercial Row. 1) The first floor of the primary facade should be transparent glass predominantly. 2) Upper floors should be perceived as being more opaque than the lower floor. 3) Highly reflective or darkly tinted glass is inappro- priate. 4) Express the traditional distinction in floor heights between street levels and upper levels through detailing, materials and fenestration. C. A canopy may be considered on commercial storefront types. 1) The designs should be simple in character. 6. Detail Alignment A strong alignment of horizontal elements exists at the first floor level with moldings and canopies that are found at the top of display windows; at upper floor levels, alignment is found among cornices, window sills and headers. This alignment of horizontal fea- tures on building facades is one of the strongest char- acteristics of the street and should be preserved. It is important to note, however, that slight variations do occur, which add visual interest. A. The general alignment of horizontal features on building fronts must be maintained. 1) Typical elements that align include: window mold- ings, tops of display windows, cornices, copings and parapets at the tops of buildings. 2) When large buildings are designed to appear as several buildings, there should be some slight variation in the alignment of horizontal features. The Commercial District Character Area Chapter 15 Page 114 7. Corner Lots Many buildings on corner lots exhibit special features that add accent to both Front Street and the crossing streets. Corner entrances, towers and storefront win- dows that extend along both street facades are ex- amples. These elements are appropriate in corner lot locations and should be encouraged. A. Special features that highlight buildings on cor- ner lots may be considered. 1) Develop both street elevations to provide visual interest to pedestrians. 2) Corner entrances, bay windows and towers are examples of elements that may be considered to emphasize corner locations. 3) Storefront windows, display cases and other ele- ments that provide visual entrances to facades along side streets are also appropriate. C. New construction should relate to existing his- toric buildings in mass and scale. 1) Maintaining the historic mass and scale of build- ings on Jibboom Street is of primary importance. Where a new project abuts a designated historic structure, step the building down at the property edge to minimize abrupt changes in scale, or in- crease side yard setbacks to reduce the impact. 2) Maintain the traditional proportions of building height, width and depth found in existing historic buildings. 3) Attachments that provide variety in building form are encouraged. Rear additions that step down in scale are also encouraged. D. Use building masses that reinforce the percep- tion of the natural topography. 1) Buildings that cut into slopes are encouraged where they can help minimize the perceived mass Jibboom Street and size. 2) Step buildings down at hillside edges, to minimize 1. Mass and Scale Jibboom Street is characterized by a collection of rela- tively small scale structures. Although a few larger in- stitutional structures exist, the smaller size and slop- ing roof forms of the simple residences and businesses dominated the scene historically and should continue to do so. A. Maintain the average perceived scale of one- and two-story buildings along Jibboom Street. 1) As a means of minimizing the perceived mass of a project, consider developing a set of smaller buildings, with one primary building and other subordinate structures, rather than one large struc- ture. 2) Consider a series of small building modules, or components, that may be interconnected. B. Maintain the range of building heights that ex- isted historically on Jibboom Street. 1) The apparent height of a primary facade should not exceed two stories. visual impacts and reduce the apparent height. 2. Building and Roof Form Historically, individual building forms were simple rectangular solids with gabled roofs. Some had false- front facades obscuring the gable. These traditions should be continued in new developments. A. Use roof forms that are similar in size and shape to those seen historically. 1) Sloping, gable roof forms should be the dominant roof shapes on residential type buildings. 2) Roofs composed of a combination of roof planes, but simple in form, are also encouraged. 3) Each individual roof should be in scale with those on historic structures. B. Rectangular forms should be dominant on com- mercial facades. 1) Rectangular forms should be vertically oriented. 2) The facade should appear as predominantly flat, with any decorative elements and projecting or setback “articulations” appearing to be subordinate to the dominant form. The Commercial District Character Area Chapter 15 Page 115 As seen in this 1885 historic map of Jibboom Street as a group, buildings in this area vary somewhat in their relationship to the street. 3. Building Setbacks As a group, buildings in this area vary somewhat in their relationship to the street. Residential buildings are typically set back from the street edge, behind a small front yard, while commercial buildings are lo- cated at the sidewalk edge. New development should therefore respect these siting patterns. A. A new building should sit within the range of setbacks as seen historically. 1) Some structures should align at the sidewalk edge. Others should be set back, with small courts or yards. 2) A large development should include varied set- backs. 3) Landscaping and fences that help define the yard’s front edge are encouraged. B. Provide variety in side yard spacing. 1) Side yard widths should fit within the range seen historically. 2) Side yards are more varied in the northern part of this Treatment Area, and more flexibility in design will be given. 4. Positive Open Space Open space and landscaping should be developed to enhance the appeal of the area to pedestrians. A. Locate open space on the site so it is visible from the street. 1) Courtyards and arcades that open to the street are encouraged. 2) Rear yards between primary and secondary struc- tures were found traditionally and are also appro- priate. B. Courtyards and lawn area should reflect the rela- tively modest character of historic landscapes along Jibboom Street while accommodating contemporary functions. Open space and landscaping should be developed to enhance the appeal of the area to pedestrians. The Commercial District Character Area Chapter 15 Page 116 5. Architectural Character Historic buildings in the area were simple in style, and did not have much architectural ornamentation. New buildings should also be simple in architectural char- acter. A. Building details that maintain the simple char- acter of this area are encouraged. 1) Ornamental trim and decoration that is in char- acter with the manner in which ornamentation has been applied historically is encouraged. 2) Consider eaves, mullions, corner boards and brackets. 3) Use architectural ornamentation i n limited amounts on individual buildings. 4) Traditional locations for decorative elements are porches and eaves. B. Repeat the patterns created by similar shapes and sizes of traditional building features. 1) Double-hung, vertically proportioned windows similar to those used historically are particularly encouraged. C..... Use porches, balconies, decks and stoops which are similar in form and scale to those found tradi- tionally, to provide visual interest and a human scale. Historic buildings in the area were simple in style, and did not have much architectural ornamentation. The Burckhaulter Character Area Chapter 16 Page 117 CHAPTER 16 THE BURCKHAULTER CHARACTER AREA The Burckhaulter Character Area is essentially con- fined to the top and sides of a prominent hill behind the Commercial District. Early development here took advantage of the southern exposure and access to downtown. Today the Burckhaulter Character Area contains only the western portion of what historically was identified as the Burckhaulter Neighborhood. (The eastern portion is now vacant land and is ex- cluded from the Character Area boundary.) Historic Significance This neighborhood dates from (1863-1890) and origi- nally contained many of the community’s oldest resi- dential buildings. Historically, this area had several large and “high-style” buildings, including the Burckhaulter Mansion itself, which was destroyed by fire in 1976. Truckee’s mortuary was also located i n the Burckhaulter Character Area. The mortuary business was later relocated to the Church Street/Trout Creek Character Area, across from the community center. Historically, this area had several large and “high-style” buildings. Historic Character Description Due t o the steep topography found i n the Burckhaulter neighborhood, the area was not as densely developed as residential streets below it. Much larger houses, located on larger lots, were also the norm here. Many of these were built toward the rear of their lots, at the top of the steep slopes, and facing down- hill. Because of this, a long series of straight stairs were very common. There also seemed to be private access to carriage houses and barns at the top of these par- cels, opposite the public access from the stairs. ☞ Please see page 97 (Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings) for a map that shows this Character Area in its Truckee context. The Burckhaulter Character Area Chapter 16 Page 118 Current Character The Burckhaulter Character Area contains a collec- tion of Victorian era residences that date from 1890 to 1910. They represent a distinctive part of town and contribute greatly to the downtown’s historic signifi- cance. Alterations have slightly diminished the col- lection of Victorian, Queen Anne and Italianate style properties. Additionally, several modern residential properties—both single-family and multifamily—have been constructed in this area. With respect to scale, buildings range from small cot- tages to larger, single-family homes. Maintenance fa- cilities for CalTrans also are located in the neigh- borhood. Most buildings are simple in design, although some ornamentation was used historically. The smaller houses tend to exhibit very few details, reserving most ornamentation for porches. Larger houses show more ornamental detail. However, even these are modest overall. This limited range of application is an impor- tant characteristic of the area. Exterior wall materials traditionally were horizontal wood siding. Stone was used generally for foundations. The limited combination of roof forms found on many buildings creates another striking feature. Most are simple gabled or hip roofs. Steep pitches are common. Wood shingles and standing seam metal were used on many early buildings, while today composition shingles are frequently used. Some key design characteristics of this Character Area include: • Single family residences are the dominant type of structure • Several larger houses were here historically, mixed in with smaller ones • Front yards are defined by a fence • Wood lap siding is the dominant building mate- rial • Variety of architectural styles exists • Gabled or hipped roofs dominate • Simple detailing • Hillside backdrop • Rear portions of lot adjacent to Keiser while build- ing fronts face downhill • Buildings range from one-and-one half to two- and-one half stories • Raised porches overlooking Jibboom Street • Buildings are located to the rear of the lot • Majority of yard is on the downhill slope • Auto access from Keiser • Retaining wall A long set of stairs was commonly used for public access from the street below the house. Porches are distinctive features in the Burckhaulter Area. The Burckhaulter Character Area Chapter 16 Page 119 Design Goals & Policies The Burckhaulter Character Area should continue to develop with buildings that relate in form, mass and scale to residential structures seen historically. The design goals for the Burckhaulter Character Area are: • To emphasize the preservation and restoration of historic structures, when feasible • To continue the use of traditional building mate- rials • To maintain traditional building mass, scale and forms • To minimize visual impacts of hill cuts, using stepped retaining walls and landscaping • To encourage the use of front porches that face the street • To encourage detached garages and other second- ary structures that are subordinate in character and scale to the primary structure Retaining walls and fences were popular to define property lines. In addition note that secondary structures were subordinate in character and scale to the primary structure. The Burckhaulter Character Area Chapter 16 Page 120 Design Guidelines for New Buildings 1. Mass and Scale Historically there were both smaller and larger resi- dences mixed together in the Burckhaulter Character Area. Theses residences shared similar detailing and were generally one and one-half to two and one-half stories. The mass and size of buildings in Truckee are among the elements that have greatest influence on compatible construction in the community. The height, width and depth of a new building should be compatible with historic buildings within the Burckhaulter Character Area and especially with those structures that are immediately adjacent to the new building. The size of a building also should relate to its lot size and placement on the lot. A. New construction should appear similar in mass and scale t o historic structures found i n the Burckhaulter Character Area. B. A larger building should be divided into “mod- ules” that reflect the traditional scale of construc- tion. 1) If a larger building is divided into “modules,” these should be expressed three-dimensionally, by hav- ing significant architectural changes throughout the entire building. 2) Consider stepping down the mass of larger build- ings to minimize the perceived scale at the street. C. A facade should appear similar in dimension to those seen historically in the town. 1) Building elements should be in scale with the over- all mass of the building. D. Use building masses that reinforce the percep- tion of the natural topography. 1) Buildings that cut into slopes are encouraged where they can help minimize the perceived mass and size. 2) Step a building down to minimize visual impacts and reduce the apparent height. 2. Building Orientation The Burckhaulter Character Area varies in grade and has a number of lots which can be accessed from ei- ther the uphill street edge or the downhill street edge. Many of the larger structures were oriented to face the downhill street front. A. Orient facades to the street. 1) On streets with a significant grade change build- ing facades should orient to face the downhill street front. 3. Views Traditionally in the Burckhaulter Character Area the hillside served as the backdrop to structures. Views to the hillside should be preserved. A. Screen views from the public way to any ser- vice or parking areas. 1) Landscaping is encouraged, and may be required in order to mitigate visual impacts of service ar- eas. 2) Any landscaping, when mature, should maintain existing views to the hillside. B. Preserve views to scenic features and the hill- side. 1) Consider positioning buildings on the site to main- tain significant view corridors. References: ☞ See also Chapter 10: Design Guidelines for Site Features and Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings. The River Character Area Chapter 17 Page 121 CHAPTER 17 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR THE RIVER CHARACTER AREA The long River Character Area includes properties along East River Street, West River Street, East South River Street and Riverside Drive, extending in an east/west corridor along both sides of the Truckee River and south of the railroad right-of-way. Historic Significance American Indians made spring and summer camps along the river’s banks before the neighborhood be- gan to develop. Permanent settlement of the River Character Area was initiated by Italian immigrants in the 1870s. A Truckee pioneer, Johnathan Moody, also developed a small subdivision at the eastern end of East River Street between 1890 and 1910. The Truckee River runs through the middle of the River Character Area. For a short time a Chinese neighborhood also existed in a part of this area. Today, very little remains archi- tecturally to suggest the significant history associated with the Chinese community. The three buildings with historic associations that survive have been substan- tially modified. The Chinese Herb Shop has under- gone major remodeling, but is the only remaining prop- erty that has proven connections to a significant as- pect of early development associated with the Chi- nese community. Perhaps what is most notable about this area is the absence of large buildings along the south side of the street, which are clearly depicted in historic photographs. Historic Character Description Along East and West River Streets a single family residential neighborhood developed, although other uses were also constructed along portions of East River Street. Some boarding houses, commercial uses and even some multifamily residences were found. None- theless, the predominant character was still that of a residential neighborhood. Most of these houses were small and located on small lots with narrow side yards between structures. A va- riety of building widths was seen, however. As with many of the residential neighborhoods in Truckee, those along River Street also incorporated a front ☞ Please see page 97 (Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings) for a map that shows this Character Area in its Truckee context. The River Character Area Chapter 17 Page 122 porch that faced the street. These houses faced north towards the rail yards and the Commercial District, not the river. The rear yards of these structures backed onto an un- improved “lane” which was to become Riverside Drive. The simpler “cabins” found along this lane were the only structures on the north side of the river to face south and take advantage of the views to the river. As one moved east towards East River Street, the single family residential character became much more pro- nounced and the density of development increased. Additions to the rear of houses were also a strong part of the tradition here. The Chinese Herb Shop has undergone major remodeling, but is the only remaining property that has proven connections to a significant aspect of early development associated with the Chinese community. Current Character The River Character Area is noted for the Truckee River which runs through the middle of the neigh- borhood. Most buildings date from 1890 to 1930, with the exception of those few historic structures in the Chinatown/South Truckee neighborhood that date from 1878 to 1890. This area is dominated by residential architecture. While residential building types dominate, some com- mercial and industrial architecture is found in this large neighborhood. Many early commercial properties (in- cluding hotels, saloons, boarding houses, bakeries and laundries) were mixed in with the residences. These streets reflect the wide variations in building plans, forms and architectural styles for the community. Rep- resentative styles include Vernacular, Frontier Ver- nacular Commercial, Queen Anne, Folk Victorian, Italianate and Craftsman. Similar to the commercial district, this area was affected by fires in the early 20th century and as a consequence, new architectural styles were constructed to replace earlier buildings. Although it is one integral neighborhood, the River Character Area includes four distinct streets that have subtly different design characteristics. The south side of River Street has many of its original Victorian era structures. These buildings all exhibit a relatively uni- form alignment from the street edge. This is also the This historic photo, taken of the River Character Area looking north toward the Brickelltown Character Area, illustrates the variety of building widths that occurred and the consistent orientation of structures toward the railroad. Gable roofs are predominant. Rear yards of these structures backed onto an unimproved “lane” which was to become Riverside Drive. The River Character Area Chapter 17 Page 123 only street that does not back directly onto the Truckee River. The back yards of these structures face onto Riverside Drive. Whereas, on East River Street more contemporary structures are found. The back yards of these structures also slope down to the river’s edge. Riverside Drive has many smaller, more utili- tarian structures than those seen on East and West River Streets. Finally, South River Street, that area historically associated with the Chinese, is the only street in the Character Area on the south side of the river. Most of these structures also are more contem- porary. Most historic buildings are relatively simple in design. Many newer residences have been added to the area since its historical development; however, a portion that originally were used as residences have been con- verted to commercial uses. Exterior wall materials traditionally were horizontal lap siding or stucco, for commercial and residential architecture alike. Stone was used generally for foun- dations. Some key design characteristics of this Character Area include: • Transitional residential neighborhood • Mix of commercial, residential and industrial uses in neighborhoods • False-front commercial buildings (along West River Street) • Gable-front residential buildings • One- and two-story buildings • Wood lap siding is the dominant building mate- rial • Retaining walls are located along yards adjacent to the river • Newer construction incorporates landscaped front yards and off-street parking • River Street widening removed some on-street parking • Front porch • Buildings on River Street have rear yards that back onto Riverside Drive • Buildings on River Street have a relatively uni- form alignment • Buildings on East and South River Streets have front yard setbacks that fall within a narrow range • Buildings on East River Street have landscaped front yards • Buildings on East and South River Streets have rear yards that slope down to the river • Alley character along Riverside Drive • Informal, native vegetation along river edge Some early, neighborhood commercial structures also can be found in the area. Riverside Drive has many smaller, more utilitarian structures than those seen on East and West River Streets. The River Character Area Chapter 17 Page 124 Design Goals & Policies The River Character Area should continue to develop with buildings that relate in mass and scale to the forms seen historically. The design goals for the River Character Area are: • To emphasize the preservation and restoration of historic structures, when feasible • To maintain views to the Truckee River • To continue the use of traditional building mate- rials • To maintain traditional building mass, scale and forms • To maintain the general alignment of building fronts • To encourage the use of residential building forms • To encourage the use of front porches that face the street • To encourage detached garages and outbuildings that are subordinate in character and scale to the primary structure The preservation and restoration of historic structures in the River Character Area is an important goal. In order to get parked cars off the street, detached garages that are subordinate in character and scale to the primary structure are encouraged. The use of a front porch that faces the street is strongly encouraged in the Character Area. Preserving the character of the Truckee River as it runs through the Character Area is an important goal. The River Character Area Chapter 17 Page 125 Design Guidelines for New Buildings 1. Positive Open Space A variety in open space is a part of the character of this area that should be maintained. Therefore, site plans in the River Character Area should be devel- oped with open spaces in mind. A. Open spaces should be developed to enhance yards and view corridors. 1) Open spaces should not simply be "left over" space. 2) Develop outdoor areas that promote pedestrian activity. 2. Views Views of the natural setting of Truckee are some of the community’s greatest assets that contribute to the quality of life and value of properties and should be protected and enhanced whenever feasible. Views to the Truckee River are outstanding and give special identity to this Character Area. These amenities should be protected as much as possible. All projects should be planned to reinforce and preserve existing public view corridors and to establish new view op- portunities. In doing so, consideration should be given to how views from existing projects may be affected by new construction. When feasible, planning for views should be in balance with traditional site lay- outs and yard spacings. A. Preserve views to significant features such as the Truckee River..... 1) Respecting established side yard setbacks will help to maintain views to the river. 2) Alternative positioning of buildings on the site may be considered when doing so would main- tain significant view corridors. 3) Landscaping is encouraged, and in some situa- tions, may be required in order to mitigate other visual impacts. Such landscaping, when mature, should maintain existing views and solar access corridors. B. Building forms that respect existing views are encouraged. 1) For example, rectangular forms oriented with the long side perpendicular to the street will often provide views through the property. 2) Reduced building footprints that increase side yard view corridors are also encouraged. 3. Building Setbacks Most front facades align at a relatively uniform set- back from the street in each block. The rhythm cre- ated by the placement of buildings and side yards is an especially important characteristic of the area. This historic development pattern contributes to the visual continuity of the neighborhood and should be pre- served. A. Maintain the alignment of building fronts along the street. 1) Setbacks should fall within the established range of setbacks in the block. 2) For additions to existing buildings, set them back from the front of the structure such that they do not alter the perceived character of the front. Maintain the alignment of building fronts along the street. References: ☞ See also Chapter 10: Design Guidelines for Site Features and Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings. ☞ See also Chapter 18.20.050 - River Protection Overlay District, of the Truckee Municipal Code for development standards along the Truckee River. The River Character Area Chapter 17 Page 126 4. Building Orientation Traditionally, a building was oriented with its primary wall planes in line with the parcel's property lines. These traditional patterns of building orientation should be maintained. A. Orient a new building parallel to its lot lines, similar to that of historic buildings. 6. Mass and Scale The mass and scale of buildings are among the ele- ments that have greatest influence on compatible con- struction in the area. The height, width and depth of a new building should be compatible with historic buildings within the River Character Area and espe- cially with those structures that are immediately adja- cent to the new building. Residences in the Character Area range from one to two stories, but are typically one and one-half story. Therefore, the tradition of one- to two-story street facades should be continued. A. New construction should appear similar in mass and scale to historic structures found in the River Character Area. 1) Break up the massing of larger buildings into com- ponents that reflect this traditional size. Orient a new building parallel to its lot lines, similar to that of historic buildings. 5. Plant Materials With portions of the River Character Area being more established in their development, it is important for new projects to take advantage of any site features that are existing. Existing stands of vegetation, for example, are important in the history of Truckee and add char- acter to the area as a whole. These features should be retained whenever feasible. A. Incorporate existing stands of native vegetation in landscape plans. B. For properties adjacent to the Truckee River, maintain the natural character of the river edge. C. Preserve and enhance wildlife habitats along the river edge. Residences in the Character Area range from one to two stories, but are typically one and one-half story. The River Character Area Chapter 17 Page 127 7. Building and Roof Form Traditionally, simple building forms appeared in Truckee. Most were modest rectangular shapes. In some cases, larger masses were achieved by combin- ing two or more simple masses, in which case one of the masses typically appeared to be the "dominant" element, while others appeared to be attached to it. The "integrity" of the dominant form was a distinc- tive feature. Maintaining this tradition of building is vital to the protection of the character of Truckee and the visual relationship with the River Character Area. A. Use building forms similar to those used tradi- tionally in the River Character Area. B. The simple forms of gable, hip and shed roofs are appropriate. 1) Dormers should be simple and subordinate to the overall roof form. 2) Alternative roof element shapes may be consid- ered in instances where views and solar access are to be protected and preserved. C. Roofs should be similar in size to those used his- torically on comparable buildings. D. Buildings adjacent to the Truckee River should step down in height toward the river edge of the property. 8. Porches A majority of the residences in the River Character Area have front porches. These serve to reinforce the visual continuity of the neighborhood. A. The use of a porch is strongly encouraged and it should appear similar to those seen traditionally. 1) The porch floor and roof height shall appear simi- lar to those seen traditionally on the block. 2) Use similar building design elements and materi- als as those seen traditionally. 3) The front porch shall be "functional," in that it is used as a means of access to the entry. A front porch shall be "functional," in that it is used as a means of access to the entry. The simple forms of gable, hip and shed roofs as seen in this image, are appropriate. A majority of the residences in the River Character Area have front porches. These serve to reinforce the visual continuity of the neighborhood. The River Character Area Chapter 17 Page 128 The Church Street Character Area Chapter 18 Page 129 CHAPTER 18 THE CHURCH STREET CHARACTER AREA The Church Street Character Area includes the Church Street neighborhood identified in Fire and Ice. Historically, these neighborhoods were visually associated. The construction of the highway separated the eastern and western portions, but nonetheless, the design policies for these areas are related. The Character Area is directly east of the Commer- cial District. It is roughly bounded by Jibboom Street on the north, Bridge Street on the west, the railroad right-of-way on the south and those properties east of Highway 267. Historic Significance George Schaffer was an early Truckee pioneer and one of the several houses that he built is located be- hind the Truckee Hotel, which is at the northeastern corner of Front and Bridge Streets. A stone firebreak exists between this house and the hotel. Dr. William Curless, Joseph Gray and Reverend T.S. Unen were some of the neighborhood’s other leading residents. Joseph Gray, Truckee’s first “white” resident, also fought for the rights of the Chinese community. The two neighborhood churches—the Methodist church and the Catholic church—remain the focus of the neighborhood today. The First Methodist Church was constructed in 1869 and the Assump- tion Catholic Church was constructed in 1885. It was originally built at the east end of Church Street, but in 1907, was moved next to the large rock to the east of the Methodist church. During construction of Highway 267, the church was moved one more time to its current location. Today, the Methodist church remains in its original location and serves as a focal point for the neighborhood. ☞ Please see page 97 (Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings) for a map that shows this Character Area in its Truckee context. The Church Street Character Area Chapter 18 Page 130 For many years, an elementary school was also located in the Church Street neighborhood. The school was replaced, however, by another institutional building: the Truckee Donner Recreation Center. The area was noted for ice harvesting at the Trout Creek Ice Company, although very little evidence of these ice harvests remain today. The Church Street Character Area displays un-patterned architectural construction including the Catholic church and asso- ciated rectory, and an eclectic mix of historic and mod- ern residential buildings. Historic Character Description The Church Street neighborhood was mostly residen- tial in character with a few institutional buildings serv- ing as accents. Comparing two historic maps (from 1898 and 1907) for the Church Street neighborhood, several clues to the development of the area can be discerned. First, the area primarily consisted of small residences that lined Church Street. These houses were all set back a similar distance from the street, had front porches and small side yards. There appeared to be more residences in the western portion of the neigh- borhood, closer to the downtown. Development thinned out as the neighborhood approached the rail- road right-of-way at the eastern end. Porches also var- ied in design. Many were full-width, but some wrapped around the side of a house. A few even wrapped around three sides of a house. Current Character The Church Street Character Area is noted for High- way 267 that runs northeasterly through the neigh- borhood. The highway separates it into two parts. The western half contains the greatest concentration of buildings. In the heart of the neighborhood, Church Street is quite wide, reading as a large open space. Many cars park here, however. A mix of building types, that date from 1890 to 1930, provides a sense of visual diversity. Both traditional domestic and institutional architecture are found here. The Methodist church, the Catholic church and the Truckee Tahoe Recreation Center dominate the west- ern portion of the Character Area. At the east end of Church Street, only three historic properties survive: two residences—one of which was a hospital—and a railroad warehouse. Although most of the buildings in the western por- tion of the area have original residential associations, many have been converted to commercial uses. Sev- eral commercial properties (hotel, restaurant, offices) can be found here. The northern part of the Character Area. Across the street from the Methodist church and the Recreation Center stand a row of houses that exhibit the traditional characteristics of the area. The Church Street Character Area Chapter 18 Page 131 Most residential architecture in this neighborhood is simple, gable-fronted vernacular, although several buildings with Folk Victorian detailing have survived. Many residences that are located on the south side of Church Street have rear yards and secondary struc- tures that are exposed along Highway 267. The far northeastern corner of the Character Area possesses a small, unique group of vernacular build- ings that all display an excellent level of integrity, al- though their condition is somewhat deteriorated. Most buildings are simple in design, although some ornamentation was used historically. The smaller buildings tend to exhibit very few details, reserving most ornamentation for porches. Exterior wall materials traditionally were horizontal lap siding, for commercial and residential architecture alike. Masonry was used generally for foundations. The limited combination of roof forms found on the buildings creates another striking feature. Most are simple gables. Wood shingles and standing seam metal were used, while today composition shingles are fre- quently used. Some key design characteristics of this Character Area include: • Churches dominate and anchor area • On-street parking • Adjacent to Trout Creek • Small residential neighborhood pockets • Wood lap siding is the dominant material • Front porches face the street (some are inset and some are projecting) • Standing seam metal roofs • One to one and one-half stories • Front facing gable • Buildings are adjacent to the street without a yard on the south side of the street • Buildings are set back from the street with a front yard on the north side of the street • On-street parking • Outbuildings to the rear of a lot • No curb cuts along Church Street itself • Trout Creek is partially enclosed • Retaining walls along Trout Creek • East of Highway 267 is visually separate from the west side A mix of building types in this Character Area, that date from 1890 to 1930, provides a sense of visual diversity. Although always having a “back yard” character, it was not until the later addition of Highway 267, that many residences on the south side of Church Street have rear yards and secondary structures that are now exposed. The Church Street Character Area Chapter 18 Page 132 Design Goals & Policies The Church Street Character Area should continue to develop with buildings that relate in mass and scale to the building forms seen historically. The design goals for the Church Street Character Area are: • To emphasize the preservation and restoration of historic structures, when feasible (the restoration of “Supporting” buildings to upgrade rating is a priority in this area) • To continue the use of traditional building mate- rials • To maintain traditional building mass, scale and forms • To encourage the use of residential building forms (institutional buildings should serve as accents only) • To encourage the use of front porches that face the street • To encourage detached garages that are subordi- nate in character and scale to the primary struc- ture • To visually reconnect the eastern portion by pro- moting new infill that draws upon characteristics seen in the west side Encourage the use of residential building forms such as these small houses in the northeastern portion of the Character Area facing a narrow lane that overlooks Trout Creek. Residential type structures align along the street. An early view of the south side of the Methodist Church. The Church Street Character Area Chapter 18 Page 133 Design Guidelines for New Buildings 1. Building Setbacks Most front facades align with relatively uniform set- backs in each block. The rhythm created by the place- ment of buildings and side yards is an especially im- portant characteristic of the area. This historic devel- opment pattern contributes to the visual continuity of the neighborhood and should be preserved. A. Maintain the alignment of building fronts along the street. 1) Setbacks should fall within the established range of setbacks in the block. 2) For additions to existing buildings, set them back from the front of the structure such that they do not alter the perceived character of the front. 3) Landscaping and fences that help define the yard’s front edge are encouraged. 2. Mass and Scale The height, width and depth of a new building should be compatible with historic buildings within the Church Street Character Area and especially with those structures that are immediately adjacent to the new building. There may be exceptions to this rule in the case of institutional structures that serve to an- chor the neighborhood. The size of a building also should relate to its lot size and placement on the lot. A limited mix of “small” and “large” building sizes exist in the Church Street Character Area. Even on larger lots where larger buildings occur, the traditional build- ing size is preserved. This established size should be maintained. A. New construction should appear similar in mass and size to historic structures found in the Church Street Character Area. 1) Residences in the Character Area range from one to two stories, but are typically one and one-half story. 2) The tradition of one- to two-story street facades should be continued. B. A facade should appear similar in dimension to those seen historically in the Character Area. 1) Break up the massing of larger buildings into com- ponents that reflect the traditional size. References: ☞ See also Chapter 10: Design Guidelines for Site Features and Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings. The Church Street Character Area Chapter 18 Page 134 3. Building and Roof Form The traditional residential building form consists of a simple rectangular mass capped with a gabled or hipped roof. Additions are usually located to the rear of the main building. In a basic sense, it is the combinations of these shapes that establish a sense of scale for the neighborhood. These characteristic forms should be preserved. A. Use building forms similar to those found tradi- tionally. 1) Vertically-oriented rectangular shapes are typical and are encouraged. 2) One simple form should be the dominant element in a building design. 3) Building forms that step down in size to the rear of the lot are encouraged. 4) Smaller, secondary buildings should be simple rectangular shapes, as well. B. Use traditional roof forms. 1) Sloping roof forms, such as gabled, hip and shed, should be the dominant roof shapes. Avoid flat roofs. 2) Traditional roofs are simple and steeply pitched and most have hip or gabled ends facing the street. Most primary roofs have pitches of 9:12, although some are as low as 7:12. Shed roofs, on additions, have a wider range of pitches from 4:12 to 12:12. 3) Non-traditional roof forms are inappropriate. 4) Orient primary ridge lines perpendicular to the street. C. The number and size of dormers should be lim- ited on a roof, such that the primary roof form re- mains prominent. 1) Dormers should be used with restraint, in keep- ing with the simple character of buildings in Truckee. 2) The top of a dormer roof should be located below the ridge line of the primary roof and set back from the eave. D. Roofs should be similar in size to those used his- torically on comparable buildings. 1) The length of a roof ridge should not exceed those seen historically on comparable buildings. Histori- cally, in residential contexts, the maximum ridge length was 35 to 40 feet. ridge length The length of a roof ridge should not exceed those seen historically on comparable buildings. Use building forms similar to those found traditionally. The Church Street Character Area Chapter 18 Page 135 4. Porches A majority of the residences in the Church Street Character Area have front porches. These serve to reinforce the visual continuity of the neighborhood. A. The use of a porch is strongly encouraged and they should appear similar to those seen tradition- ally. 1) The porch floor and roof height shall appear simi- lar to those seen traditionally on the block. 2) Use similar building design elements and materi- als as those seen traditionally. B. The front porch shall be "functional," in that it is used as a means of access to the entry. 5. Garages Although not a part of the historic street scene in Truckee, the automobile and its associated storage is part of contemporary life. Therefore, the visual im- pacts of parking, which include driveways, garages and garage doors, should be minimized. On-site parking should be subordinate to other uses and front yards should not be used for parking. A. A garage should not dominate the street scene. 1) A garage should be subordinate to the primary structure on the site. B. A detached garage is preferred. 1) In order to minimize the impact of a garage on the street scene, locate it to the rear of the build- ing. Setting a garage back substantially from the primary building front, may also be considered. 2) This will help reduce the perceived mass of the overall development. 3) The material and detailing of a detached garage should be utilitarian, to be compatible with other historic accessory structures. The use of a porch is strongly encouraged and it should appear similar to those seen traditionally. The Church Street Character Area Chapter 18 Page 136 Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 19 Page 137 CHAPTER 19 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR THE MCGLASHAN ADDITION CHARACTER AREA The McGlashan Addition is located in the northwest portion of the community, bounded on the north by I-80 and the south by High Street and on the east by Bridge Street. Historic Significance Charles McGlashan, a noted community developer, is credited with undertaking development of this area in the 1890s. McGlashan built his mansion near Rock- ing Stone, mostly because of a shortage of good resi- dential lots in Truckee at the time. The Richardson Brothers, also a significant force in the community, operated a business and constructed a beautiful home in this neighborhood as well. One of the community’s few historic brick residences is also located in the McGlashan Addition. The McGlashan Addition was initially developed by Charles McGlashan, a noted community developer, in the 1890s. ☞ Please see page 91 (Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings) for a map that shows this Character Area in its Truckee context. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 19 Page 138 Historic Character Description Historically, the McGlashan Addition was organized around the three primary east-west streets—High, Keiser and Perkins—which were all single-loaded, with residences on only the uphill side. Accessory struc- tures and rear yards were typically accessed from the next street up the hill. Building setbacks varied on each of these streets, but they fell into a limited range overall. Front porches also were prominent features. Historic maps from 1890, 1898 and 1907, also show that additions were a part of the area’s early tradition. Connecting smaller structures to the main house with “linking” elements was also a part of this tradition. These same maps show that High Street evolved from a row of single-family residences in 1890, to larger structures by 1898 due to many additions, and to a mixed use character with some commercial structures or uses seen along the street by 1907. The western end of this neighborhood, around the area where McGlashan’s Mansion stood, was much less developed that the eastern half. Although the Interstate is now in this area, it did not appear to be developed historically. The Richardson House retains much of its original integrity and decorative woodwork in the eaves and on the porch. Compare with how the structure looked historically in the photo on the left. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 19 Page 139 Current Character Development in the McGlashan Addition Character Area continued through 1910-1950 and the archi- tecture reflects the diverse characteristics of construc- tion design and style for various periods (including Ver- nacular, Craftsman, Folk Victorian, Italianate and Gothic Revival). Several buildings representative of early Truckee can be found here. Buildings range from small, wood frame, single-fam- ily cottages to larger, single-family homes. One story residences make up the majority of the structures. Most buildings are simple in design, although some ornamentation was used historically. A limited range of detail is an important characteristic of the area. It also contains several residences of historical impor- tance that serve as “accents” within the neighborhood: the McGlashan Mansion shelter and the Standard Oil building at Perkins and High Streets. Exterior wall materials were horizontal wood siding. Stone was used generally for foundations. A limited combination of roof forms found on many buildings creates another striking feature. Most are simple gabled or hip roofs. Steep pitches are common. Wood shingles and standing seam metal were used on many early roofs, while today composition shingles are frequently used. The McGlashan Mansion and Museum served as a significant landmark to both the Character Area and Truckee as a whole. Today, all that remains is the shell from the butterfly museum. The historic photograph below shows how “McGlashan’s Crystal Palace” once appeared. The historic photograph above shows how “McGlashan’s Crystal Palace” once appeared. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 19 Page 140 Some key design characteristics of this Character Area include: • A hilltop location with an overview of downtown Truckee and the Truckee River • Walkable streets, but sidewalks do not exist • One, two and three story buildings (three story buildings are mostly on the downslope side of the street) • Many streets have buildings on only one side, because of the steep slopes • Primary building facade is oriented downhill • Garages in front are both attached and detached • Winding, steep roads • Wood frame structures • Pitched roofs, usually symmetrical, with wood shingles • Front porches face the street • Some buildings are on raised foundations • Varied building setbacks • Single lot depth • Retaining walls and fences define property lines Design Goals & Policies The McGlashan Addition Character Area should continue to develop with buildings that relate in mass and scale to the building forms seen historically. The design goals for the McGlashan Addition Char- acter Area are: • To emphasize the preservation and restoration of historic structures, when feasible • To continue the use of traditional building mate- rials • To preserve and maintain views to below • To maintain traditional building mass, scale and forms • To minimize visual impacts of hill cuts; use stepped retaining walls and landscaping • To encourage the use of residential building forms • To encourage the use of front porches that face the street • To minimize visual impacts of parking platforms, on downhill sites • To encourage first floors that are raised from grade and accessed with steps, on uphill sites • To minimize the visual impact of garages by “tuck- ing” under the structure and concealing it with matching materials, on uphill sites One of the guiding principles in the Character Area is to maintain the traditional building mass, scale and form that is a part of the context. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 19 Page 141 Design Guidelines for New Buildings 1. Building Setbacks Most front facades align at a relatively uniform set- back from the street in each block. The rhythm cre- ated by the placement of buildings and side yards is an especially important characteristic of the area. This historic development pattern contributes to the visual continuity of the neighborhood and should be pre- served. A. Maintain the alignment of building fronts along the street. 1) Setbacks should fall within the established range of setbacks in the block. 2) For additions to existing buildings, set them back from the front of the structure such that they do not alter the perceived character of the front. Typi- cally a setback from the building front should be, at a minimum, equal to the width of the facade. B. Side yards should match the dimensions of historic yards along the street. This historic map of High Street illustrates the uniform setbacks that were established within the McGlashan Character Area. 2. Building Orientation New projects in the McGlashan Character Area may be seen from lower viewpoints, and therefore any project has the potential for significant visual impact on the overall character of the town. Visual impacts of any hillside development should be minimized. A. Align buildings with others in the McGlashan Character Area. 1) Setbacks should fall within the traditional range of setbacks found within the Character Area. B. Minimize cuts into the hillside that would increase the visual impact of the structure from lower viewpoints. 1) Use stepped retaining walls and landscaping to decrease the visual impact of hillside cuts. C. In order to minimize the impact of founda- tions either conceal or decrease the visible portions of the foundation. D. Orient the primary entrance of a building to- ward the street. 1) Buildings should have a clearly defined primary entrance. For example, provide a porch on a resi- dence. References: ☞ See also Chapter 10: Design Guidelines for Site Features and Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 19 Page 142 3. Mass and Size The height, width and depth of a new building should be compatible with historic buildings within the McGlashan Character Area and especially with those structures that are immediately adjacent to the new building. The size of a building also should relate to its lot size. A limited mix of “small” and “large” build- ing sizes exist in the McGlashan Character Area. Even on larger lots where larger buildings occur, the tradi- tional building size is preserved. This established range of building sizes should be maintained. A. New construction should appear similar in mass and size to historic structures found in the McGlashan Character Area. 1) Residences in the Character Area from one- to two-stories, but are typically one and one-half story. 2) The tradition of one to two story street facades should be continued. 3) Break up the massing of larger buildings into com- ponents that reflect this traditional size. B. A facade should appear similar in dimension to those seen historically in the town. Buildings that cut into slopes are encouraged where they can help minimize the perceived mass and size. C. Use building masses that reinforce the percep- tion of the natural topography. 1) Buildings that cut into slopes are encouraged where they can help minimize the perceived mass and size. 2) Step buildings down at hillside edges, to minimize visual impacts and reduce the apparent height. 3) Avoid placing tall buildings at high points on the site or in other highly visible areas. 4. Building and Roof Form Traditionally, simple building forms appeared in the area. Most were modest rectangular shapes. In some cases, larger masses were achieved by combining two or more simple masses, in which case one of the masses typically appeared to be the "dominant" element, while others appeared to be attached to it. The "integrity" of the dominant form was a distinctive feature. Main- taining this tradition of building is vital to the protec- tion of the character of Truckee and the visual rela- tionship with the McGlashan Character Area. A. Use building forms similar to those seen tra- ditionally in the McGlashan Character Area. B. Roof slopes that repeat the slope of the hill- side are encouraged. 1) Roof forms that protect views of significant fea- tures and existing view corridors are encouraged. 2) Use muted colors that blend with the hillside. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 19 Page 143 5. Garages Although not a part of the historic street scene in Truckee, the automobile and its associated storage is part of contemporary life. Therefore, the visual im- pacts of parking, which include driveways, garages and garage doors, should be minimized. On-site parking should be subordinate to other uses and the front yards should not appear to be a parking area. A. A garage should not dominate the street scene. 1) A garage should be subordinate to the primary structure on the site. B. A detached garage is preferred. 1) In order to minimize the impact of a garage on the street scene, locate it to the rear of the build- ing. Setting a garage back substantially from the primary building front, may also be considered. 2) This will help reduce the perceived mass of the overall development. 3) The material and detailing of a detached garage should be utilitarian, to be compatible with other historic accessory structures. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 19 Page 144 The Railroad Character Area Chapter 20 Page 145 CHAPTER 20 THE RAILROAD CHARACTER AREA The Railroad Character Area contains the railroad tracks and those lands flanking them. The Railroad Character Area contains the railroad tracks and those lands flanking them. This area is gen- erally within the railroad’s right-of-way and is sparsely developed. Historically, it had some warehouse and industrial type buildings. It is different from the other areas of downtown and the design policies for it re- flect this. Historic Significance The railroad line and its associated properties repre- sent one of the fundamental reasons for the town’s existence. Railroad crews began lying tracks from Sac- ramento toward the Sierras while Joseph Gray was erecting his log cabin in the Truckee River Basin in 1863. By 1867, Gray and George Schaffer had built the first lumber mill on the river. ☞ Please see page 97 (Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings) for a map that shows this Character Area in its Truckee context. The Railroad Character Area Chapter 20 Page 146 Almost a year later the Virginia City Daily Trespass ran an announcement from Coburn’s Station: “Last evening...the last connecting rail between California and Nevada...had been laid. Tomorrow the cars will run from Reno to Sacramento.” The railroad continued to figure prominently in Truckee. The Freight Depot, the oldest railroad build- ing in town, was constructed in 1891 and a passenger depot was built in 1896. Other key businesses and industries located along the rail line. The far eastern portion of this area was origi- nally dominated by the Truckee Power and Light hy- droelectric plant which no longer stands. The power station served an important social and economic pur- pose, for here, many poker games were held which involved significant Truckee land exchanges. Historic Character Description Historically, many more buildings existed within the railroad “right-of-way” than do now. Building types and styles varied. Hotels and depot sported decorative trim while industrial building were larger, simple masses. The large rail and industrial buildings found here did not have storefronts or front porches, but rather load- ing docks. These structures were also accessed from two sides: from the railroad tracks for the loading and unloading of goods, and from the street for the deliv- ery and pickup of these goods. Just as the entire area is linear, organized along the railroad tracks, the buildings too were often very lin- ear. A clustering of buildings around a single function was also seen (e.g., lumber, ice, repair and maintenance, and hotels). These clusters included separate buildings for storage, offices, manufacturing, livestock, lodging, ice and coal, and were often organized around a cen- tral gathering space. Over time, these buildings would come and go. They were replaced by newer or larger structures, or some- times weren’t replaced at all. This was partly due to cycles of fire, function and economics. Through its history, however, it has remained visually distinct from other part of downtown. In 1896, a passenger depot was built, and it is still in operation in the center of town. A mix of forms have given variety to this area. The Railroad Character Area Chapter 20 Page 147 Current Character The Railroad Character Area is a mostly linear space except in the balloon track area and is organized around the functions of the railroad. Generally, this area is viewed as open space. Only a few rail and in- dustrial buildings remain; the rest of the land is used for parking or is unimproved. Potential for substan- tial development exists here. Some key design characteristics of this Character Area include: • Visible from most of downtown • Flat open space • Minimal vegetative cover • Railroad and industrial style buildings • Area runs the length of the downtown Longer rooflines exist in this area. The curve of the balloon track definitively shapes the eastern portion of this Character Area. Existing railroad associated buildings located in the railroad right-of- way. Industrial features include signal posts. The Railroad Character Area Chapter 20 Page 148 Traditionally, many buildings were “double-fronted,” facing the street and the railroad. Design Goals & Policies As the Railroad Character Area builds out, the Town wishes to ensure that it appears to be visually related to the community, through building forms and size. It also should reflect its design traditions without di- rectly imitating the buildings that existed before. A mix of uses is encouraged and a mix of building types is also appropriate. The design goals for the Railroad Character Area are: • To draw upon the warehouse and railroad build- ing designs seen historically without direct imita- tion • To also consider the traditional storefront as a model to mix in among warehouse/industrial building types • To provide pedestrian amenities • To provide a scale of projects that is compatible with the overall scale of the downtown Houses along East River Street look onto the Railroad Area. Taller structures also appear in this area. The Railroad Character Area Chapter 20 Page 149 1. Street Layout The Railroad Character Area represents an area of town that has traditionally contained a mix of indus- trial and retail establishments. The platting and place- ment of buildings should reflect the traditional char- acter of the area , while providing a transition between the adjacent character areas. A. Planning for the Railroad Character Area should extend adjacent streets without mimicking them. 2. Positive Open Space Open space should be developed to enhance the ap- peal of the area to pedestrians. This open space should be developed as a public amenity for use by residents and visitors alike. A. Locate open space on the site so it is visible from the street. 1) If multiple structures are proposed, the spaces be- tween the buildings should contribute to the over- all positive open space on the site, and be of a size adequate enough to provide a distinct separation between building forms. 2) Courtyards should have solar exposure when fea- sible. 3) Courtyards that are totally closed from public view and access are discouraged. B. The Railroad area should incorporate an open space system that provides a focus for the district This historic 1885 map of the Railroad Character Area illustrates a typical cluster of buildings that framed an open space. References: ☞ See also Chapter 10: Design Guidelines for Site Features and Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings. The Railroad Character Area Chapter 20 Page 150 3. Building Orientation The Railroad Character Area developed in associa- tion with the railroad and shipping industry. Many of the buildings in this area were oriented parallel to the tracks to facilitate loading and unloading of goods. A. Large rectangular buildings should orient the long side of the building parallel with the railroad track. 4. Building Setbacks As a group, the few remaining buildings in this area relate to the street in a similar manner, with loading docks or entries facing the street. Historically they were organized in clusters around a central gathering space. A uniform line of building fronts rarely appeared here. New developments should respect the historic siting patterns of the area. A. Buildings setbacks may vary. 1) Varied setbacks are encouraged as appropriate to accommodate positive open space and clustering of buildings. 5. Mass and Scale Historic buildings in the Railroad Character Area ranged in scale from large warehouses and depots to small storage sheds. Today, this same variety in the walls of buildings along the street should occur in new projects. A. New buildings should reflect the range of sizes that appeared historically in the area. 1) Structures may be larger that those seen histori- cally if they are designed to appear to be a collec- tion of smaller masses. See the techniques de- scribed below. B. The maximum width of a primary facade shall be 75 feet. 1) Primary facades that exceed 75 feet should be dif- ferentiated by a significant setback in the wall plane, creating positive open space in these set- backs such that they will enhance the streetscape. 2) Variations in facade treatment should be contin- ued through the structure, including its roof line and front and rear facades, such that the compo- sition appears to be a collection of smaller build- ings. C. Create variety in wall planes to minimize the apparent scale. 1) Extensive repetition of similar forms on large monolithic surfaces that would lead to the per- ception of a large building mass is inappropriate. 2) Consider varying the setbacks of walls facing the street on large projects that occupy several par- cels. 3) Also consider varying materials and textures to reduce the perception of large expanses of wall surface. D. As a means of minimizing the perceived mass of a project, consider developing a set of smaller buildings rather than one large structure. 1) This is the preferred method of reducing perceived scale and primarily applies to large projects where several parcels have been combined, and the po- tential for a large-scale building is greater. 2) Although freestanding buildings are preferred, several primary building forms may be linked by "connectors," which should be designed such that they are clearly perceived as separate elements that are subordinate to and smaller than the structures they are linking. The Railroad Character Area Chapter 20 Page 151 6. Building and Roof Form Historically, individual building forms were simple lin- ear rectangular solids. Roof forms were simple, either shed, gable or flat. The dominant roof of each build- ing was typically one of these types. These traditions should be continued in new developments. A. Use building forms that reflect the simple utili- tarian forms of railroad buildings and structures seen in the area traditionally. 1) One simple form should be the dominant element in a building design. 2) Smaller, secondary buildings should be simple rectangular shapes, as well. B. Gabled and shed roofs are encouraged and should have a pitch that is similar to that seen his- torically. 7. Pedestrian Systems The Railroad Character Area should develop as a pe- destrian-oriented environment. Streets, sidewalks and pathways should encourage walking and bicycling within this area. New projects should take this into account by designing for the pedestrian at a human scale and by providing visual interest along the street. A. Develop the ground floor level of all projects to encourage pedestrian activity. 1) Provide variety in setback, height, color, texture of materials and building size and form to enhance the pedestrian experience. 2) For a project in which a commercial storefront is to be developed, include elements such as display windows, kickplates, transoms and midbelt cor- nices. 3) Storefront display windows provide visual inter- est along the street and are encouraged. B. Consider developing paths within the parcel that encourage pedestrian access. 1) Paths to interior courts and terraces are encour- aged. 2) When developing multiple buildings on a site, it is especially important to provide paths through the site. Use building forms that reflect the simple utilitarian forms of railroad buildings and structures seen in the area traditionally. 8. Warehouse Character Many buildings in the area exhibited the simple fea- tures of warehouse structures. These included verti- cally proportioned double-hung windows, large doors and loading docks. New designs that draw upon these traditions without literally copying them are appro- priate. A. Window dimensions that are similar to those used traditionally are encouraged B. Upper story windows with a vertical emphasis are encouraged. C. New construction should incorporate loading docks similar to those seen traditionally. 1) Many older warehouses are introducing pedestrian related uses and are incorporating such elements as outdoor seating on the loading docks. D. Openings similar in size and depth to loading dock doors should be incorporated into new con- struction. 1) Contemporary interpretations of loading dock doors, which are similar in scale and overall char- acter to those seen historically, are encouraged. The Railroad Character Area Chapter 20 Page 152 The South River Character Area Chapter 21 Page 153 CHAPTER 21 THE SOUTH RIVER CHARACTER AREA The South River Character Area contains parcels along the portion of South River Street that lies west of Highway 267. This area is visually separated from the other streets along the river and developed with different patterns. Historic Significance The South River Character Area has few surviving historic properties. Here many of Truckee’s large scale industrial and commercial activities once took place. Truckee’s first lumber mill was located in the South River Character Area, as was the Von Fluee dairy. South River also contains the site of the town’s last Ice Palace, which was an important community land- mark in the early twentieth century. Historic Character Description Historically, this area included a mix of building types, including some single-family residences, some larger boarding houses, and even some large industrial op- erations. However, the area was never very densely built out. There was a fair amount of open space around many of the structures. South River Street was one of the few streets in town, however, that was double-loaded—that is, there were buildings located on both sides of the street, because it was relatively flat. Today, the site of Truckee’s last Ice Palace is open land on the Truckee River. ☞ Please see page 97 (Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings) for a map that shows this Character Area in its Truckee context. ☞ See also Chapter 18.20.050 - River Protection Overlay District, of the Truckee Municipal Code for development standards along the Truckee River. The South River Character Area Chapter 21 Page 154 Current Character Although this area had some of the town’s largest structures (those associated with the lumber mills), much of the South River Character Area is perceived as open space today. Only one structure survives from the area’s historical period of development. The ma- jority of the residences found in the character are con- temporary occurrences. Some key design characteristics of this Character Area include: • Substantial amounts of open land and lots of grassy areas with native shrubs • Large lots • Views across river to Commercial District and buildings on Riverside Drive • River access on north side • Some houses are located along river banks • Front-facing gable • Wood clad buildings • Diversity of architecture in new construction; some is contemporary • Buildings are set back from the street • Hillside back drop • Landscaped front and side yards • Parking in front yards Design Goals & Policies The South River Character Area should continue to develop with buildings that relate in mass and scale to the building forms seen historically. The design goals for the South River Character Area are: • To emphasize the preservation and restoration of historic structures, when feasible • To continue the use of traditional building mate- rials • To maintain traditional building mass, scale and forms • To maintain the range of building mass and forms that reflect the mix of uses seen historically • To encourage the use of front porches that face the street • To encourage detached garages that are subordi- nate in character and scale to the primary struc- ture • To give special consideration to the western end of the area, which is where the Ice Palace and ski run out were • To respect the natural character of the river edge Only one structure survives from the area’s historical period of development, 1890 through 1910. The South River Character Area Chapter 21 Page 155 Design Guidelines for New Buildings 1. Positive Open Space Open space within any development enhances both the immediate surroundings as well as the town as a whole. Portions of the South River Character Area, such as the site of the last Ice Palace, are presently perceived as open space. This perception should be continued as much as possible even as the area devel- ops. Site plans should be planned to maximize the perception of this open space. A. Arrange buildings in groups that will maximize shared open space. 1) Clustered housing, zero lot lines and other cre- ative planning concepts may be appropriate to create large areas of shared open space. 2) Include open spaces with special amenities that encourage use, such as benches and sitting areas. 3) Consider clustering parking areas to reduce paved surface areas and allow increased areas of shared open space. 4) Plans that include some lots without street front- age may be considered. B. If several buildings are proposed for the site, the spaces between the buildings should contribute to the overall positive open space of the project and the area. 1) Buildings should be positioned on the site in a manner that minimizes the apparent mass and scale and maximizes open space. C. Connect open spaces among large projects. 1) Where many projects abut one another, open spaces should be organized in a manner which maximizes their areas. 2) Open spaces also should connect with any trails or other open spaces in the vicinity, especially along the river. References: ☞ See also Chapter 10: Design Guidelines for Site Features and Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings. The South River Character Area Chapter 21 Page 156 2. Views Views of the natural setting of Truckee are some of the community’s greatest assets that contribute to the quality of life and value of properties and should be protected and enhanced whenever feasible. Views to the Truckee River, are outstanding and give special identity to this Character Area. These amenities should be protected as much as possible, even as the areas develop. All projects should be planned to rein- force and preserve existing public and private view cor- ridors and to establish new view opportunities. In do- ing so, consideration should be given to how views from existing projects may be affected by new con- struction. When feasible, planning for views should be in balance with traditional site layouts and yard spacings. A. Preserve views to significant features such as the Truckee River..... 1) Respecting established side yard setbacks will help to maintain the views to the river. 2) Balancing view opportunities with traditional set- backs found in older residential neighborhoods is encouraged. 3) Although traditional siting on lots that is along conventional platted lines is encouraged, alterna- tive positioning of buildings on the site may be considered when doing so would maintain signifi- cant view corridors. 4) Site plans for new construction should include consideration of retaining view opportunities for future projects. 5) Landscaping is encouraged, and in some situa- tions, may be required in order to mitigate other visual impacts. Such landscaping, when mature, should maintain existing views and solar access corridors. B. Building forms that respect existing views are encouraged. 1) For example, rectangular forms oriented with the long side perpendicular to the street will often provide views through the property. 2) Reduced building footprints that increase side yard view corridors are encouraged. Views of the natural setting of Truckee are some of the community’s greatest assets that contribute to the quality of life and value of properties and should be protected and enhanced whenever feasible. 3. Building Setbacks Most front facades align at a relatively uniform set- back from the street in each block. The rhythm cre- ated by the placement of buildings and side yards is an especially important characteristic of the area. This historic development pattern contributes to the visual continuity of the neighborhood and should be pre- served. A. Maintain the alignment of building fronts along the street. 1) Setbacks should fall within the established range of setbacks in the block. 2) For additions to existing buildings, set them back from the front of the structure such that they do not alter the perceived character of the front. Typi- cally a setback from the building front should be, at a minimum, equal to the width of the facade. B. Side yards should match the dimensions of his- toric yards along the street. 1) Locate a building so that it does not block views or access to the river. C. Site a building to complement and enhance views from the street to the river. 1) Orient sloping roofs to provide views. 2) Also use side yard setbacks as view opportunities. The South River Character Area Chapter 21 Page 157 4. Building Orientation Traditionally, a building was oriented to the street with its primary entrance also facing the street. These tra- ditional patterns of building orientation should be maintained throughout the community. A. Orient the primary entrance of a building to- ward the street. 1) Buildings should have a clearly defined primary entrance. For example, provide a porch on a resi- dential structure to define its entry. 5. Plant Materials With portions of the South River Character Area being more established in their development, it is im- portant for new projects to take advantage of any site features that are existing. Existing stands of vegeta- tion, for example, are important in the history of Truckee and add character to the area as a whole. These features should be retained whenever feasible. A. Incorporate existing stands of native vegetation in landscape plans. B. For properties adjacent to the Truckee River, maintain the natural character of the river edge. C. Preserve and enhance wildlife habitats along the river edge. 6. Mass and Scale The height, width and depth of a new building should be compatible with historic buildings in the commu- nity at large, within the South River Character Area and especially with those structures that are immedi- ately adjacent to the new building. The size of a build- ing also should relate to its lot size and placement on the lot. A. New construction should appear similar in mass and size to historic structures found in the Charac- ter Area. 1) Residences in the Character Area range from one to two stories, but are typically one and one-half story. 2) The tradition of one- to two-story street facades should be continued. 3) Break up the massing of larger buildings into com- ponents that reflect this traditional size. References: ☞ See also Truckee Municipal Code Chapter 18.42.080 - Recommended Plant Materials. The South River Character Area Chapter 21 Page 158 7. Building and Roof Form Traditionally, simple building forms appeared in Truckee. Most were modest rectangular shapes. In some cases, larger masses were achieved by combin- ing two or more simple masses, in which case one of the masses typically appeared to be the "dominant" element, while others appeared to be attached to it. The "integrity" of the dominant form was a distinc- tive feature. Maintaining this tradition of building is vital to the protection of the character of Truckee and the visual relationship with the River Character Area. A. Use building forms similar to those seen tradi- tionally in the South River Character Area. 1) The overall building form should be similar to historic buildings seen in the area. 2) Maintain the traditional proportions (height to width to depth) found in the residential neigh- borhoods of Truckee. B. The simple forms of gable, hip and shed roofs are appropriate. 1) Dormers should be simple and subordinate to the overall roof form. 2) Alternative roof element shapes may be consid- ered in instances where views and solar access are to be protected and preserved. C. Roofs should be similar in size to those used his- torically on comparable buildings. D. Orient major roof elements to protect views. E. Buildings adjacent to the Truckee River should step down in height toward the river edge of the property. 8. Porches A majority of the residences in the South River Char- acter Area have front porches. These serve to rein- force the visual continuity of the neighborhood. A. The use of a porch is strongly encouraged and they should appear similar to those seen tradition- ally. 1) The porch floor and roof height shall appear simi- lar to those seen traditionally on the block. 2) Use similar building design elements and materi- als as those seen traditionally. 3) The front porch shall be "functional," in that it is used as a means of access to the entry. 9. Garages Although not a part of the historic streetscene in Truckee, the automobile and its associated storage is part of contemporary life. Therefore, the visual im- pacts of parking, which include driveways, garages and garage doors, should be minimized. On-site parking should be subordinate to other uses and the front yards should not appear to be a parking area. A. A garage should not dominate the street scene. 1) A garage should be subordinate to the primary structure on the site. B. A detached garage is preferred. 1) In order to minimize the impact of a garage on the street scene, locate it to the rear of the build- ing. Setting a garage back substantially from the primary building front, may also be considered. 2) This will help reduce the perceived mass of the overall development. 3) The material and detailing of a detached garage should be utilitarian, to be compatible with other historic accessory structures. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 22 Page 159 CHAPTER 22 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR THE HILLTOP CHARACTER AREA The Hilltop Character Area contains buildings along Hilltop Road that were historically associated with a recreational ski area known as Hill Top. The area is at the southern edge of the Downtown Truckee study area and reflects the boundary as defined in the Down- town Specific Plan. A significant portion of the land is undeveloped; however, there is a some high density housing, a restaurant and the historic ski hill. Historic Significance The hill that makes up part of this Character Area was the site of a ski jump that was used during Truckee’s Winter Carnivals. At the base of the ski jump was the Hill Top Lodge, dating to 1928. The lodge, constructed from railroad ties, was part of the ski area begun by railroad developer Charles Crocker. Hill Top was a center for winter activities and was home to one of the nation’s first mechanical ski lifts. Features associated with the South River Character Area, such as the toboggan lift from the Ice Palace, also occur within the boundaries of this Character Area. Hilltop is associated with the significant recre- ational development that occurred in this particular portion of the community during 1910-1950. Further up the ridge Hill Top Lodge, dating to 1928, is associated with the significant recreational development that occurred in this particular portion of the community. ☞ Please see page 91 (Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings) for a map that shows this Character Area in its Truckee context. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 22 Page 160 Historic Character Description Historically this area was made up of isolated build- ings that evolved into clusters of development cen- tered around open space. Generally there was one larger element, such as a lodge, and a series of subor- dinate outbuildings. The configuration of these build- ings was informal and responded to the natural land- scape and topography. Current Character Much of the Hilltop Character Area is perceived as open space. Undeveloped land here is in a relatively natural state, which contrasts with the South River Character Area below. Since this area is quite visible from viewpoints lower on the river basin floor and from across the valley, concern should be given to the visual impact of any project upon the overall percep- tion of open space. In some locations, steep slopes may also present technical construction problems and vi- sual impacts may be especially significant. In addition, remnants from the ski industry, including lifts and cleared paths representing former ski runs, are present in the area. Some key design characteristics of this Character Area include: • Trees and open space • Views to and from much of Truckee • Steep slopes • Single-family residences from the 1940s • Gabled or hipped roof forms • Horizontal wood siding • Simple detailing Design Goals & Policies The Hilltop Character Area should develop with buildings that minimize their visual impacts on the hillside. The design goals for the Hilltop Character Area are: • To maintain the open space character • To locate buildings around open spaces, rather than align along streets • To cluster new buildings around historic ski spaces • To preserve the buildings that date from the 1940s • To avoid the cut-and-fill technique for building on steep slopes • To avoid the removal of existing landscaping and to provide adequate, new landscaping that may help reduce a building’s perceived size • To reduce the visual impacts of new develop- ments, including additions • To relate to the character of buildings located below these slopes through building form, mate- rial, size and informal clustering arrangements • To continue the use of traditional building mate- rials Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 22 Page 161 Design Guidelines for New Construction 1. Street Layout The Hilltop Character Area establishes the outermost edge of development in the town. The platting and placement of buildings should result in projects that blend with the natural hillside and which are mini- mally visible from within the core of the town. The location of the Hilltop Character Area above the core of the town, along with the steep terrain, increase the visibility of streets and driveways in the area. The area should establish a gradual change from the core to the hillside. Of special concern are any areas where the topography requires substantial cuts and retaining structures. Any new street should be curvilinear and informal in design. A. Locate buildings in line with existing contours. B. Minimize the visual appearance of all new roads, as seen from lower viewpoints in town. 1) Although some road layouts are established in this area, consider ways to minimize disturbance of natural topography wherever new roads or drives are contemplated. 2) Keep cut-and-fill to a minimum. 3) Consider schemes that provide for compact streets and shared drives to minimize the area of paved (impervious) surfaces. Shared Drive Consider schemes that provide for compact streets and shared drives to minimize the area of paved (impervious) surfaces. References: ☞ See also Chapter 10: Design Guidelines for Site Features and Chapter 13: General Guidelines for New Buildings. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 22 Page 162 2. Positive Open Space The hillside areas are presently perceived as open space. This perception should be continued as much as pos- sible even as the area develops. Projects should be planned to maximize the perception of this open space. A. Arrange buildings in groups that will maxi- mize shared open space. 1) Clustered housing, zero lot lines and other cre- ative planning concepts may be appropriate to create large areas of shared open space. 2) Include open spaces with special amenities that encourage use, such as benches and sitting areas. 3) Consider clustering parking areas to reduce paved surface areas and allow increased areas of shared open space. 4) Plans that include some lots without street front- age may be considered. B. If several buildings are proposed for the site, the spaces between the buildings should contribute to the overall positive open space of the project and the area. 1) Buildings should be positioned on the site in a manner that minimizes the apparent mass and scale and maximizes open space. C. Connect open spaces among large projects. 1) Where many projects abut one another, open spaces should be organized in a manner which maximizes their areas. 2) Open spaces also should connect with any trails or other open spaces in the vicinity, especially to Ponderosa Palisades and the Truckee River. Arrange buildings in groups that will maximize shared open space. Consider clustering parking areas to reduce paved surface areas and allow increased areas of shared open space. Views from the Hilltop Character Area into the core of town are very important and should be preserved. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 22 Page 163 3. Views Views from the area into the core of town and from the town to the Hilltop Character Area are very im- portant and should be preserved. The impact that structures and site elements could have on these view corridors is great and should be avoided. Careful plan- ning of any proposed projects is a must. In particular, the preservation of key view corridors along historic lines of lifts, ski runs, and tows should be considered. These areas could be utilized as pedestrian routes or links to open space. A. Preserve views to scenic features. 1) Consider positioning buildings on the site to main- tain significant view corridors. 2) Balancing view opportunities with traditional set- backs found in older residential neighborhoods is encouraged. 3) Alternative positioning of buildings on the site may be considered when doing so would main- tain significant view corridors. 4) Site plans for new construction should include consideration of retaining view opportunities for future projects. 5) Landscaping is encouraged, and in some situa- tions, may be required in order to mitigate other visual impacts. Such landscaping, when mature, should maintain existing views and solar access corridors. 4. Building Orientation New projects in the Hilltop Character Area should respect the historic natural setting which may be seen from lower viewpoints, and therefore any project has the potential for significant visual impact on the overall character of the town. Visual impacts of any hillside development should be minimized. A. Cluster buildings around open space similar to the traditional orientation in the area. B. Orient buildings on the site to complement the natural topography. Orient buildings on the site to complement the natural topography. The preservation of key view corridors along historic lines of lifts, ski runs, and tows should be considered. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 22 Page 164 5. Landscaping Although most projects are encouraged to provide landscaping and screening on site, the use of typical ornamental materials may not be appropriate in the Hilltop Character Area. Typical hillside planting ma- terials are natural and very modest in character. Simple grasses and trees should be considered for landscaping materials. A. Use plant materials that blend with the hill- side. 1) Landscape schemes that are rough, natural and/ or subdued in character are encouraged. 2) Extensive areas of exotic plants and sod are dis- couraged where they would be visible from the public right-of-way. 3) Preserve existing plant materials of significant size (e.g., including trees, shrubs and other natural landscape features) in place or relocate them within the site. B. Preserve existing tree canopy as much as fea- sible. 6. Mass and Size The mass and size of buildings in Truckee are among the greatest concerns for compatible construction in the community. The natural, hillside character of the Hilltop Character Area is important and should also be maintained. Buildings in this Character Area will have significant impacts on the historic structures be- low and the perception of natural open space surround- ing the town. These impacts should be minimized. Vi- sually overpowering building forms should be avoided. A. Use building masses that reinforce the percep- tion of the natural topography. 1) Buildings that cut into slopes are encouraged where they can help minimize the perceived mass and size. 2) Step buildings down at hillside edges, to minimize visual impacts and reduce the apparent height. 3) Avoid placing tall buildings at high points on the site or in other highly visible areas. Landscape schemes that are rough, natural and/or subdued in character are encouraged. The natural, hillside character of the Hilltop Character Area is important and should also be maintained. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 22 Page 165 7. Building and Roof Form Traditionally, simple building forms appeared in Truckee. Most were modest rectangular shapes. In some cases, larger masses were achieved by combin- ing two or more simple masses, in which case one of the masses typically appeared to be the "dominant" element, while others appeared to be attached to it. The "integrity" of the dominant form was a distinc- tive feature. Contemporary design approaches are encouraged; however, buildings should appear to be similar in scale to those found traditionally and visual continuity should be reinforced through the use of similar materials, proportions and shapes to those found throughout the town. It is especially important that buildings create a gentle transition in scale along boundaries with other Character Areas. A. Use building sizes that will appear to be simi- lar in scale to those found traditionally in town and convey a sense of human scale. 1) As seen from the town center, buildings should also appear similar in scale with the town core. 2) In order to break up the perceived mass of larger structures, divide them into modules that are simi- lar in size to buildings seen traditionally. B. Buildings which are near the South River and River Character Areas should be similar in mass and scale to the adjacent residential structures to create a gentle transition to the Character Areas. 1) Maintain the proportions of buildings found tra- ditionally in Truckee, to protect the scale and character of the Character Areas. 2) On lots that abut residential structures, building forms should step down. 3) Provide one- and two-story elements at property edges. Elevation Axonometric In order to break up the perceived mass of larger structures, divide them into modules that are similar in size to buildings seen traditionally. C. Building heights on larger projects should be a variety, including some one- and two-story ele- ments at the edges. D. Large lots should be developed with several buildings, rather than a single structure to help re- duce the perceived scale of the project. 1) The area between the buildings should contrib- ute to the overall positive open space of the site. Historic Preservation Overlay District Design Guidelines Chapter 22 Page 166 8. Lighting Those in the other parts of Truckee can easily see all of the Hilltop Character Area. Light emanating from within a building can have an effect upon the charac- ter of the town at night. Large areas of glass can be- come sources of glare and can affect perception of the night sky. Lighting should be shielded or otherwise minimized. A. Reduce the amount of light emanating from a development in the hillside. 1) Lighting from buildings located higher on hillsides are more visible at night and may affect the night character of the community. 2) Large areas of glass in exterior walls that may al- low "spill-over" of interior light sources, resulting in nighttime glare, should be used with caution.